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Roger W. McHaney 

Web 2.0 and Social Media for Business 



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Web 2.0 and Social Media for Business 

© 201 2 Roger W. McHaney & bookboon.com (Ventus Publishing ApS) 

ISBN 978-87-403-0266-0 



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Web 2.0 and Social Media for Business 



Contents 



Contents 



1 Introduction to Web 2.0 

1.1 The Internet and World Wide Web 

1.2 Web 2.0 Denned 

1.3 Conclusions 

1.4 Bibliography 

2 Blogging for Business 

2.1 Voice and Personality 

2.2 Blog Environments 

2.3 Building a Blog 

2.4 Conclusions 

2.5 Bibliography 

3 More Blogging: WordPress Options 

3. 1 Customizing a WordPress Blog 

3.2 General Settings 

3.3 Using Widgets 

3.4 Blog Posts 



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3.5 Adding Mobile and iPad Options 

3.6 Managing Pages 

3.7 Connecting with Search Engines 

3.8 Connecting with Customers 

3.9 Conclusions 

3.10 Bibliography 

4 Beyond Blogging: RSS and Podcasting 

4.1 RSS Defined 

4.2 RSS in Practice 

4.3 Podcasting 

4.4 Conclusions 

4.5 Bibliography 

5 Videocasting, Screencasting and Live Streaming 

5.1 Videocasting 

5.2 Screencasting 

5.3 Live Streaming 

5.4 Conclusions 

5.5 Bibliography 



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6 Wikis and Other Collaborative Documents 

6.1 Wikis 

6.2 Wiki Software 

6.3 Building a Wiki 

6.4 Zoho Wiki Example 

6.5 Other Collaborative Documents 

6.6 Conclusions 

6.7 Bibliography 



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7 Social Buzz and Viral Phenomenon 

7. 1 Twitter for Business 

7.2 Social Buzz with StumbleUpon and Reddit 

7.3 Tumblr 

7.4 Pinterest 

7.5 Foursquare and Location-Based Services 

7.6 Tracking Social Interest 

7.7 Conclusions 

7.8 Bibliography 



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8 Big Social Media: Facebook and Linkedln 

8. 1 Facebook for Business 

8.2 Linkedln for Business 

8.3 Conclusions 

8.4 Bibliography 



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Acknowledgements 



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Web 2.0 and Social Media for Business Introduction to Web 2.0 

1 Introduction to Web 2.0 

To some, the term Web 2.0 might suggest a new version of the World Wide Web is running on a vast 
network of powerful computers somewhere. In actuality, this is far from the truth. Web 2.0 is a term 
coined during the O'Reilly Media Web 2.0 Conference in late 2004. Since then it has been used to describe 
applications that allow people to participate in information creation, digital resource sharing, webpage 
design, and collaboration on the World Wide Web. Examples of Web 2.0 applications include Facebook, 
YouTube, Linkedln, Flickr, WordPress, Wikimedia, and Blogger. Put simply, Web 2.0 sites allow users to 
collaborate with each other in social settings. Users create and share content in virtual communities set 
up by software developers according to the purpose of the site. Since Web 2.0 does not refer to updates 
to technical specification but rather in how people use the Web, this term has been publically challenged 
by World Wide Web inventor Tim Berners-Lee. He feels the term is a piece of jargon because the Web 
is operating in the way he had originally envisioned. He called the Web a collaborative medium, a place 
where we all meet and read and write (Laningham, 2006). 

No matter if we call it Web 2.0 or not, the World Wide Web has been changed dramatically. New material 
is being created and posted by people from all across the globe. Not too long ago, websites were created 
by specialists from universities or businesses. Today, everyday people are recreating the Web with their 
posts on Facebook, their photos on Flickr, their videos on YouTube, their blogs on Tumblr, their tweets 
on Twitter, and their sense of what news is important on Digg, Reddit and StumbleUpon. The Web has 
become an extension of our daily lives and that is important to business and the way people will interact 
in the future. 

The following sections will provide a sense of how a social media mindset emerged from the Internet 
and how World Wide Web use has become increasingly sophisticated and important to modern business 
success. 

1 .1 The Internet and World Wide Web 

Without a doubt, the Internet has opened the world to vast possibilities of communication, information 
creation, data sharing and computing power. The inventions of telegraph, telephone, radio, television, and 
computer provided a glimpse of the future and a set of capabilities that would eventually be recreated in 
an integrated environment made possible by digital technology. The Internet s humble beginnings can be 
traced to four networked host computers called ARPANET in 1969 to more than 5 billion devices in 2010. 
Expectations are that more than 22 billion devices will be online by 2020 (Jeffries, 2010). The Internet 
has provided infrastructure for "world-wide broadcasting, a mechanism for information dissemination, 
and a medium for collaboration and interaction between individuals and their computers without regard 
for geographic location (Leiner, et.al. 2011)." 



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Web 2.0 and Social Media for Business Introduction to Web 2.0 

The Internet essentially is a vast computer network formed from numerous smaller, interconnected 
computer networks (See Figure 1.1). This network of networks establishes a global data communications 
system over which data has been transmitted using different approaches. For example, email can be sent 
from one server to another using a set of standards or protocol called SMTP (Simple Mail transfer Protocol). 
Files can be moved from one server to another using FTP (File Transfer Protocol). The development and 
acceptance of a variety of technologies and protocols has permitted the Internet to be used in numerous ways. 

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One of the most significant services using the Internet is a collection of interconnected documents 
organized into human-readable computer screens called webpages. A collection of webpages forms 
a website. The benefit of websites captured the general public's enthusiastic attention shortly after its 
invention (Berners-Lee, et. al., 1994) and all forms of information began to appear in easy-to-access online 
formats. Initially websites were informational and static, and comprised little more than a collection of 
linked pages usually containing text and images. Later, videos and digital assets such as flash animation 
were added to the mix. Websites became more sophisticated and could be hosted on one or more web 
servers. These servers were often tied to database management systems and application servers, and 
were accessible through Internet addresses known as Uniform Resource Locators (URLs). The collective 
whole of public websites became known as the World Wide Web (See Figure 1.2). 

Web pages are text-based documents constructed according to specifications known as Hypertext 

Markup Language (W3C, 2009). These specifications permit a wide variety of software developers to 

create systems that work according to the same rules. This means web pages can be created anywhere by 

anyone and then can be loaded into any browser with a connection to the Internet. As long as the page 

conforms to the standards, it can be viewed as the developer intended on all compliant browsers and 

computer systems. Web pages are distributed and accessed using the Hypertext Transfer Protocol, also 

known as HTTR The web browser acts as a client, requesting a resource a user wishes to view. The pages 

are stored on networked computers running programs that respond to client requests. These computers 

are called Web servers and may run software such as Apache HTTP Server or Microsoft Information 

Services (IIS) running in Windows Server. 
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Web 2.0 and Social Media for Business Introduction to Web 2.0 



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Altogether, the computer or computers hosting websites function as web servers. From a technical 
perspective, the client submits an HTTP request and the server responds by searching through stored 
content and returns a response message which generally contains the requested content. The transmission 
of requested web pages can use encryption in the form of Hypertext Transfer Protocol Secure, also called 
HTTPS. This protocol is a combination of HTTP with Transport Layer Security (TLS) and its predecessor, 
Secure Sockets Layer (SSL). This protocol also provides secure identification of a web server so the client 
is assured a connection is made with the desired location. 

The transmitted material is received by the client application, which could be a web browser, mobile 
device, application program or other software. It will interpret the HTML markup language instructions 
and render the page into the desired form. For Web browsers, this means a human readable version on 
a display terminal. The arriving material may also take the form of other digital artifacts that result in 
animation, audio or video outputs. 

1.2 Web 2.0 Defined 

The term Web 2.0 is used to describe a fundamental social way of using Internet technologies. As stated 
earlier, Web 2.0 doesn't refer to a technical update of underlying software or hardware but rather changes 
in the way the Web is being used and created by businesses, universities and society. Web 2.0 can be 
viewed as four major, interrelated components: (1) social media, (2) filtering and recommendations, 
(3) content sharing, and (4) Web applications. Most components of Web 2.0 share certain common 
characteristics. Professor Andrew McAfee of Harvard Business School suggests the use of an acronym, 
SLATES, to describe these commonalities (McAfee, 2006) as shown in Table 1.1. 

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Web 2.0 and Social Media for Business 



Introduction to Web 2.0 



SLATES Category 


Description 


Examples 


Search 


Finding information through keyword 
search. 


Google - Searches keywords and other webpage 
features 

Reddit - Searches tags added by webpage users 


Links 


Connects information into a meaningful 
ecosystem using the model of the Web and 
provides low-barrier social tools. 


Adding Friends in Facebook 
Bookmarking websites in browsers 


Authoring 


The ability to create and update content 
leads to the collaborative work of multiple 
authors. 


Users create entries, edit and extend existing 
entries. They also undo and redo each other's 
work. Bloggers create posts and comments on 
the work of others 


Tags 


Users categorize content by adding their own 
descriptive tags which are short, one or two 
word descriptions. Tags facilitate searching 
based on what website users, rather than 
developers, believe the sites represent. 
Collections of tags created by multiple 
users are called folksonomies (short for folk 
taxonomies). 


Tagging photos in Facebook with friends' names 

Creating descriptive tags in StumbleUpon to 
alert other users of material on a particular 
webpage 


Extensions 


Extension software provides additional 
capabilities to Web browsers and allows 
more than just HTML documents to be used. 
Essentially makes the Web an application 
platform as well as a document server. 


Adobe Reader, Adobe Flash player, ActiveX, 
Oracle Java, QuickTime are all extensions 


Signals 


Syndication technology enables material 
to be broadcast to multiple websites and 
to notify consumers when new material 
appears. 


RSS feeds on CNN.com notify users of new 
breaking news. 

RSS feed capability built into blogs permits new 
entries to be read in an application like NetVibes 



Table 1.1 SLATES: Common Characteristics of Web 2.0 Components 



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Web 2.0 and Social Media for Business 



Introduction to Web 2.0 



Linda Stone, a former Microsoft executive and visionary thinker, indirectly demonstrates the development 
of Web 2.0 by looking at the evolution of technology in a new way. She suggests that technologies have 
pulled back the shroud on our private lives and moved closer to the individual. She describes how 
computing technologies first were available to only large companies and organizations due to cost and 
need for engineering expertise. Personal computers moved information processing to the desktop giving 
power to knowledge workers in their everyday jobs. Mobile devices and the Web moved power to the 
individual and their daily social lives - both in and out of the workplace. This allowed collaboration, 
sharing, and interaction to reshape the World Wide Web into Web 2.0. Finally, Stone suggests that 
technologies will eventually be integrated with our physical being. She says, Intimate Layer computing 
will result in devices that monitor our brain waves, examine our sleep patterns, and clock our heart rates 
and then use that information to better our lives. We are already seeing these types of advances in many 
areas. Table 1.2 summarizes (Stone, 2009). 



Layer 


Era 


Key Characteristics 


Public 


Mainframe Computers (1945-1965) 


Power of information was controlled by a select few individuals 
such as corporate managers. 


Personal 


The Personal Computer (1965-1985) 


Power of information moved to the desktop so knowledge 
workers could control data, words, and images. 


Private 


Mobile Devices (1985-2005) 


Power of information moved to the individual so anyone with 
a network connection and computing platform could control 
data, words, video, and images. 


Intimate 


Self-Technologies (2005-2025?) 


Power of information will be intimately connected to the 
individual's physical presence and integrated with networked 
computing platforms. 



Table 1.2 Technology Evolution Creating Environment for Web 2.0 

To better understand the concepts behind Web 2.0, the following sections will provide an overview of 
its four major, interrelated components: social media, content sharing, filtering/ recommendations, and 
Web applications. 

1 .2.1 Social Media Overview 

When many people think of Web 2.0, social media comes to mind. Hundreds of millions of people use 
applications such as Facebook as their primary tools to link with friends, relatives, and increasingly, 
business. Social media and Web 2.0 often are considered interchangeable terms and indeed this is the 
largest area within Web 2.0 applications. 



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Web 2.0 and Social Media for Business 



Introduction to Web 2.0 



Social media facilitates the practice of social networking and is based on the premise that people are 
profoundly communal and have a need to interact using voice, gesture, and written language. Not only 
do people seek social outlets, they rely on social clues in decision making, planning, and communication. 
Social media supports a variety of interaction in digital environments by making it possible for users to 
supply, aggregate, filter, and consume information in various forms (McHaney, 2011, p.79-84). A Web 
2.0 mindset makes it possible to move the inherent social nature of humans onto new digital platforms. 

Social media is more than Facebook. Facebook facilitates the creation and use of social networks. Online 
social networks manifest in the form of virtual space where a community of people share information 
about themselves and their interests. These networks can be public or restricted to a circle of friends. 
People access their social networks by posting messages asynchronously or using chat tools to talk 
or message in real time. Social media users can leave multimedia messages (images, pictures, songs, 
videos, or animations) on walls. Members create online profiles with biographical information, pictures 
of themselves, current status, hobbies, interests, and other information. Examples of social media 
applications include Linkedln (a favorite of business users) and MySpace. 



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Web 2.0 and Social Media for Business Introduction to Web 2.0 

Other forms of social media include instant messaging (IM) and texting. Not long ago, the preferred 
Internet-based communication method was email. Today, most business users rely heavily on real time 
communication. IMing and texting allow people to communicate in real-time or if a user is offline, the 
messages queue up and wait until the recipient is available. IM providers have added features such as 
group chats, voice, video, file transfers, and other capabilities. Examples of IM systems include Microsoft 
Instant Messenger, Yahoo Messenger, and others. Texting systems are often included with mobile smart 
phone devices and can be used to text or send emails. 

Audio and video conferencing add a level of richness to the IM interface. Services such as GrapevineTalk 
provide audio messaging and chat tools such as Yahoo Messenger and Microsoft Instant Messenger use 
both audio and video to enhance communication capability. Web video conferencing and messaging 
ranges from personal video chats to chat rooms displaying multiple videos. Skype is a popular web 
video conferencing tool that enables free web conversations as well as connecting to mobile phones and 
landlines. Skype also permits file transfer and text messaging. In the business world, Cisco's Web Ex and 
other similar products are often used for video or audio conference users. 

Metaverses (Stephenson, 1992) and virtual worlds are another area of social media. The imaginings of 
science fiction writers have become (virtual) reality to millions of users who inhabit online environments 
such as Second Life, Active Worlds and nearly 200 hundred others. As computing power, network 
capability, and graphic resolution has improved, avatars (representations of users) are able to look and 
act realistically. This permits users to interact and communicate in a wide variety of ways. 

Virtual worlds are becoming more popular both for social interaction and for business. Researchers 
report a growth rate of 15% per month that does not appear to be slowing (Noor, 2009). The most 
popular virtual world, Second Life, has an internal economy and its own currency called the Linden 
dollar (L$). L$ can be used for all business transactions in Second Life and has a value that floats like 
any currency. L$ are used by Second Life residents to buy, sell, or rent land as well as other consumer 
goods and services. In Second Life, people can buy and sell homes, buildings, vehicles, clothing, skin, 
hair, jewelry, pets, artwork, devices, and capabilities for their avatars. 

Closely related to virtual worlds are online gaming worlds or MMORPGs (Massively Multiplayer Online 
.Role-Playing Games). These enormous virtual game platforms are commercially developed ventures that 
provide adventure and social experiences for the participants. Virtual worlds are a large and growing 
industry. In 2008, subscribers to MMORPGs paid more than 1.4 billion dollars in subscription fees 
(Harding-Rolls, 2009) and the largest game, World of Warcraft, had more than 12 million subscribers 
in 2011 (Blizzard Entertainment, 2011). World of Warcraft (WoW), from Blizzard Entertainment, is the 
most popular MMORPG. Social media-based games such as these have enormous business potential. 



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Web 2.0 and Social Media for Business Introduction to Web 2.0 

More than ever, businesses are using social media as a means of locating, understanding, connecting 
to, and interacting with their customers. Marketing managers are able to move beyond placing ads in 
relevant venues and can view discussions that either praise or criticize their products and services. Posts 
and conversations on social media sites are becoming valuable sources of data. New data analytics tools 
and techniques are emerging to help businesses understand customers and potential customers. New 
technologies focus on identifying customer sentiment toward particular brands or products, which 
helps in business planning. In some industries, analysts are using special data analytics tools to monitor 
conversations, tweets and posts on social media sites such as Facebook, Linkedln and Twitter. These 
tools sort through massive amounts of data using complex algorithms to monitor and decode words, 
opinions, rants, and even keyboard-generated smiley faces. The results can help provide insights into 
consumer mindsets about both company offerings and more general feelings toward the economy and 
political environments. 

Social media is multifaceted and has many overlaps in both form and function. A basic premise of social 
media is to enable the posting of content with the intent of encouraging interaction. Social media users 
disseminate and publish text, audio, video, art, cartoons, documents, books and other media using 
Web 2.0 concepts (Kaplan and Haenlein, 2010). Individuals have the ability to publish and distribute 
materials in ways available only to large organizations just a few years ago. Social media promotes sharing 
knowledge, the democratization of information, and allows everyone to become content producers rather 
than just consumers. Social media is a vast, growing area and can be viewed in various ways. This book 
will examine some of the newer forms of social media, particularly areas being adopted by businesses 
and organizations. In a sense, social media takes common services that have been used by businesses for 
a long time - newspapers, magazines, radio, record albums, telephones, and television - and recreates 
them in digital form with an added benefit: a layer of social interaction. 

Blogging is a social media tool that helped spark the movement from the Web as a place for posting 
static information to a dynamic read/ write communication venue (Wortham, 2007). Blogs allow users 
to synthesize and mash material from a variety of sources using RSS feed technology and facilitate the 
collection of comments and opinions from Web site visitors. Blogs can give businesses an immediate 
voice which can be heard by anyone, anywhere around the world without edits or filters. 

Businesses can collect feedback, comments, and suggestions directly from their clients, customers and 
others. The blogs author can acknowledge, edit, or delete this feedback depending on what the business 
wants the public to view. Business blogs can have impact and help connect multiple shareholders in 
numerous ways. Blogs have been used to give an organizational CEO a public voice, promote news 
stories, announce new products, provide product support, aid in marketing, describe organizational 
efforts concerning environmental matters, and in other ways. Many companies use blogs as news release 
services because this ensures an entire statement, not an edited version, is posted. Chapter 2 of this book 
will cover blogs in detail. 

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Web 2.0 and Social Media for Business 



Introduction to Web 2.0 



Podcasting is another form of social media. In some ways, this technology can be compared to radio 
broadcast infrastructure, with a couple of advantages. First, it costs very little to get started and second, it 
is exempt (in the United States) from Federal Communications Commission (FCC) oversight. Podcasters 
have the potential to instantly connect to millions of listeners, provided they have Internet access. Services 
such as iTunes Store and Podcastalley.com list thousands of regularly produced digital audio feeds. Some 
of these are produced professionally by large corporations and others are created by individuals providing 
music, political discourse, news stories, comedy, specialty information, or commentary on a variety of 
topics. Some broadcasts come across as amateur but others are very well done and professional. 

Podcasts can be created and syndicated without requiring much cost or expertise. From a conceptual 
viewpoint, podcasts can be regarded as audio blogs. To create a podcast, digital audio files (generally 
in MP3 format) are recorded and uploaded to a server where Internet users are able to access the 
material on their audio player, mobile phone, or computer. These files can be syndicated which means 
their presence is listed and indexed on podcasting websites that make it easier for listeners to find and 
subscribe to the broadcasts. 





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Web 2.0 and Social Media for Business 



Introduction to Web 2.0 



In spite of its potential, the majority of podcasts still are released by small broadcasters and individuals. 
Corporations and big media organizations are beginning to produce podcasts more frequently and 
recently, the Business Insider published a list of 10 Top Business Podcasts (Love, 2011). Table 1.3 
illustrates. Still, podcast listeners typically comprise niches and the podcasts cater to the Web's long tail, 
which we will discuss later. Customization and specific audience targeting tends to keep listeners loyal 
and coming back for more. 



Podcast Name 


Broadcaster / Website 


Topics and Info 


Marketplace 


National Public Radio (USA) 
http://www.marketplace.org/podcasts 


Focuses on business, economy, and 
events 


Managing the Gray 


C.C. Chapman 
http://www.manaqinqtheqrav.com/ 


Focuses on marketing in new media 
and publicizing products using the 
Internet 


DH Unplugged 


John Dvorak and Andrew Horowitz 
http://www.dhunpluqqed.com/ 


Candid discussion on markets, finance, 
and economy related issues 


Sales Guy's Quick and 
Dirty Tips for Getting 
the Deal Done 


Jeb Blount 
http://sales.quickanddirtytips.com/ 


Pointers on how to close more 
business deals and advance a sales 
career 


Mad Money 


Jim Cramer on CNBC 
http://www.cnbc.com/id/23257000/ 


Each episode of Mad Money is remade 
into a podcast covering investment 
advice 


Econtalk 


Russ Roberts, Professor of Economics at George 
Mason University 
http://www.econtalk.orq/ 


Role economics plays in daily life with 
topics in areas such as free trade, 
finance, health care and others 


The Public Speaker's 
Quick and Dirty Tips 
for Improving Your 
Communication Skills 


Lisa Marshall 
http://publicspeaker.quickanddirtvtips.com 


Promotes skills in public speaking 
and giving business presentations - 
also covers social situations in one's 
personal life including poise, eye 
contact, and how to be a better 
speaker in general 


Sound Investing 


Paul Merriman 
http://www.merriman.com/learn/sound-investina/ 


Provides information and ideas on 
how to successfully grow investments 
and understand deep market analysis 


Planet Money 


Alex Blumberg on NPR 

http://www.npr.orq/rss/podcast/podcast detail. 
php?siteld=94411890 


Blumberg directs correspondents to 
interview thinkers and the players that 
influence national economies 


Marketing Edge 


Albert Maruggi 
http://www.providentpartners.net/bloq/ 


Advice and insight on new social 
media with an eye toward PR and 
marketing - topics often cover 
Facebook and Twitter 



Table 1.3 Business Insider's Ten Terrific Business Podcasts (Love, 201 1) 



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17 



Web 2.0 and Social Media for Business Introduction to Web 2.0 

Frequently, podcasts are supplemented with a video component. Video podcast producers include artists, 
educators, hobbyists, small businesses and corporations that use inexpensive digital video technology 
to create high-quality visual media with cameras, various editing software and an internet connection. 
From the user s perspective, a video podcast works the same as an audio one except that a video file type 
is used (McHaney, 2011, 106-7). 

Microblogging can also be classified as social media. Twitter is a primary example of this technology. 
Twitter facilitates social networking with a combination of instant messaging and blogging. From a general 
perspective, microbloggers send out brief messages that interested people can view on a Webpage, app 
or mobile device. Wikipedia describes Twitter as: "an online social networking service and microblogging 
service that enables its users to send and read text-based posts of up to 140 characters, known as tweets. It 
was created in March 2006 by Jack Dorsey and launched that July. The service rapidly gained worldwide 
popularity, with over 300 million users as of 2011, generating over 300 million tweets and handling over 1.6 
billion search queries per day. It has been described as the SMS of the Internet (Wikipedia, 2012)." Tweets 
are displayed on a users profile page and delivered to other subscribed users, known as followers. By 
default, Tweets are public, but a sender can restrict delivery to his or her circle of friends. Users also 
can receive updates via the Twitter website, instant messaging, SMS, RSS, email or through a third party 
application such as Twitterrific, TinyChat or Facebook. 

Microblogging offers a variety of benefits from a business perspective. It can provide a real-time 
communication medium for a manager to contact her team. It offers a channel for a business to send 
important information to its clients. Tweets can be used to generate mini press releases. A student can 
shadow the tweets of a corporate CEO to gain a better understanding of business. The list goes on and 
on. Figure 1.3 provides an example business Twitter feed from Zappos.com CEO, Tony Hsieh. 



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18 



Web 2.0 and Social Media for Business 



Introduction to Web 2.0 




Hi! Tm Tony Hsieh the CEO 
of Zappos.com. 



Have a question? Here's how 
to get the fastest response: 



Customer service: 

Help finding a product 

cagfzflppos.corn 

1-800-927-7671 

Interviews, PR: 

Speaking requests 
prv2izappos.com 



Marketing, Sponsorships 
Donation & Charity Requests: 

saficfta1iDn@ZBppos. com 

Merchandising: 

Steve Hill, VP Merchandising 

shilgrzfippo5.com 



Zapposg Zapposxom CEO -Tony© 

©ZappOS Las Vegas 
deliveringhappiness. com wum.Kzappos.csm. 

http://www.detiveringhapprness.com/ 



CEO 



O Follow 




(5l Text follow zappos to your tamer's shortcode 


Tweets Favorites 


Following 


Followers Lists T 



Zappos, 

CEO 



zappos Zappos.com CEO -Tony 

Breathtaking video of birds flocking - (same pnnciple can be used 

to scale culture): bit Jy/vubsCV 



zappos Zapposxom CEO -Tony 
^*PBfiSf Our team came up w/ a riddle (correct answers get Zappos VIP 

CEO status) Too corny? Here's the riddle: bitJy/osaaqW 

14 Aug 

zappos Zappos.com CEO -Tony 

ZapRpsi Want happiness? Don't buy more stuff - go on vacation! Time 
CEO Magazine article: ti.me/oJTbCR 



zappos Zappos.com CEO -Tony 
ZapRPSj* Scientific study on how to get kids to eat more vegetables 

CEO (perceived control): bit.ly/qMre38 



Figure 1.3 Example Twitter Feed from Zappos CEO -Tony Hsieh 




REDEFINE YOUR FUTURE 

AXA GLOBAL 
GRADUATE PROGRAM 



redefining /standards 




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19 




Web 2.0 and Social Media for Business Introduction to Web 2.0 

Wikis are another popular form of social media. While blogs and microblogs are essentially one-to-many 
technologies in which a primary user communicates to a group (with feedback capabilities), Wikis go one 
step further and promote the collaborative power of the web by allowing a community of people to develop 
content. Essentially wikis are group-blogs or collaborative Websites filled with informative content. Wikis 
become a many-to-many technology where multiple users create and edit Web pages from their browsers. 

Like most social media, Wikis support hyperlinks, images, audio, video, and most other features found on 
websites. Wikis can be open or limited to specific users. Business uses of wikis include creating repositories 
of business knowledge, creating group-maintained policy documents, documenting procedures and solved 
problems, and developing other collaborative documents. Wikis work best in business settings when those 
using the wiki share in the long term benefit of having tacit knowledge maintained. In other words, why 
reinvent the wheel for each software development project when certain lessons could be captured (Bishop, 
2004)? A later chapter will provide more detail on business uses and development of wikis. 

1 .2.2 Content Sharing Overview 

Content sharing using Web 2.0 ideas has grown in importance and acceptance in the business world. 
Businesses are getting their message out into the world by sharing their material. At the same time they 
are finding innovative ways to leverage existing content that has been developed by others and licensed 
with Creative Commons attribution (Creative Commons, 2012). 

Content sharing has a great deal of overlap and integration with social media and some Websites like 
YouTube can be classified as social media primarily focused on video sharing. Other forms of content 
sharing important to business include sites that promote text, photos, videos, multimedia, e-books, business 
presentations and all sorts of other artifacts that are created then made freely available. Sometimes the 
material is posted as a means of gaining recognition in particular areas. Consultants and business services 
may take this approach when trying to connect with potential clients. Other times the material is posted 
simply because the developer wants to perform a service to their particular area of interest. Occasionally, 
material such as videos and photos, are posted because people want to share their experiences with friends 
and online social communities. In any case, the vast abundance of shared, free information is staggering 
and can have a profound impact on business operations. This section will provide an overview of several 
popular content sharing websites and briefly discuss their potential business uses. 

Probably the best known content sharing site is YouTube. YouTube started as a place on the Web where 
people could post their videos and receive comments from viewers. In addition, statistics like total number 
of views are tracked to provide the contributors with a sense of whether or not their efforts were being 
appreciated by others. YouTube now offers more sophisticated user analytics data on every uploaded video 
(Evans, 2009). By pressing YouTube s "Insight" button, free information on views statistics, demographics, 
community, and discovery data (how users found the video, including links followed to get there) can be seen. 
Businesses can also use YouTube (and other sites like it) to demonstrate expertise, share knowledge, market 
products and find/connect to customers, potential customers, peers, and other stakeholders (Elliot, 2010). 

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20 



Web 2.0 and Social Media for Business 



Introduction to Web 2.0 



Another popular content sharing site is Flickr.com. Flickr is owned by Yahoo and offers photo sharing 
and related services for a variety of users. Much of Flickr s success stems from its strong and active user 
community. Users upload photos into a personal album and then add them to groups that help categorize 
both content and anticipated use. Group members provide feedback and help provide exposure. In Table 
1.4, Matt McGee suggests ways to incorporate Flickr into business practice. 



Business Idea 


Comments 


Match your website address with your Flickr screen 
name 


This means your website address will be attached to 
everything you do in Flickr - uploaded photos, discussion 
entries, and every group you join. Your screen name 
becomes an advertisement for your business website. 


Upload high quality photos related to your business 


If you upload high quality images of your business, and 
permit others to use the photos with attribution, this will 
give you positive exposure. 


Flickr profiles can be used to advertise your company 
and its products or services 


Flickr asks for a profile description and this can become a 
place to mention your website address. It is best to provide 
a description here without getting into marketing. Also, an 
icon representing your business can be uploaded. 


Add appropriate text for each of your photos without 
becoming self- promoting 


Describe your photos and tags to accurately depict your 
work. Company name or product can be added to the tags. It 
might be advantageous to add your city name or location as 
a tag as well. 


Join groups relevant to your business and share your 
photos there 


Flickr groups can also be started if your business does not 
have a natural fit to an existing one. There may be groups 
related to a geographic region. 


Provide links from your web site to your Flickr 
photostream and vice-versa 


People will be able to move from your website to find your 
photos. Likewise, people in Flickr can find your website from 
photos. Web search engines can find your material more 
easily this way. 


Participate in community discussions and other 
activities 


By commenting on photos, developing a great favorites list 
and being prominent in discussions, your screen name (and 
hence website name) will get publicity. 


Be creative 


You can link with other high quality photographers and 
develop a reputation. If a high quality picture is being 
viewed frequently, put a relevant, meaningful comment 
there so your voice is heard and more people see your 
screen name. 



Table 1.4 Business Ideas Using Flickr (McGee, 2012) 



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21 



Web 2.0 and Social Media for Business 



Introduction to Web 2.0 



Many photo sharing sites offer photo hosting. This means a photo on their site can be displayed on 
your blog or website without needing to move the photo to your server. This will reduce the storage 
space required for your site and in many cases it can serve the photo to the user more effectively. Flickr 
is just one of thousands of content sharing communities that have been appearing on the Web. Table 
1.5 provides a glimpse at others - several of which we will explore in more detail in later chapters. In 
addition to video and photo sharing sites, many sites have emerged that specialize in other forms of 
media sharing. Among the types of media are: articles, presentations, PowerPoint slide shows, eBooks, 
magazines, and many others. 



Photo Sharing Sites 


Video Sharing and Search Sites 


Other Media Sharing Sites 


Flickr - 
www.flickr.com 


YouTube - 
www.voutube.com 


Big Think - 

www.biqthink.com 

(ideas, articles, blogs, and videos) 


Photobucket - 
www.photobucket.com 


Daily Motion - 
www.dailvmotion.com 


Scribd - 

www.scribd.com 

(media related to reading and publishing - 

articles, books, magazines, and more) 


Zooomr.com - 
www.zooomr.com 


MetaCafe - 
www.metacafe.com 


SlideShare- 

www.slideshare.net 

(slideshows and presentation material) 


Webshots - 
www.webshots.com 


Blinkx- 
www.blinkx.com 


Slideshow- 

www.slideshow.com 

(slideshows and presentation material) 


PictureTrail - 
www.picturetrail.com 


Vidmeup- 
vidmeup.com 


AuthorStream - 

www.authorstream.com 

(slideshows and presentation material) 


Shutterfly- 
www.sh utterflv.com 


BrightCove - 
www.briqhtcove.com 


DocStoc - 

www.docstoc.com 

(documents, templates, and forms for sharing 

with a business focus) 


SmugMug - 
www.smuqmuq.com 


Vimeo - 
vimeo.com 


SourceForge - 

sourceforqe.net 

(open source software sharing) 


Snapfish - 
www.snapfish.com 


Viddler- 
www.viddler.com 


issuu - 

issuu.com 

(material relevant to publishing and magazines) 


jAlbum - 
jalbum.net 


Break- 
www.break.com 


Openzine 

www.openzine.com 

(creates magazines from custom material for 

online or printed use) 



Table 1.5 Media Sharing Sites Useful to Businesses 
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22 



Web 2.0 and Social Media for Business 



Introduction to Web 2.0 



Video, photo, and other media sharing services are among the most popular sites on the Web and have 
quickly gained large audiences of both business and individual users. From a business perspective, 
many advantages can be gained from sharing material and using free, existing material. Businesses can 
save time, money and resources by using existing images, templates, and training material. By sharing 
internally developed material, publicity and name recognition can be increased. Of course, the use of 
material from sharing sites must be carefully reviewed to ensure quality and suitability for use. 

Most sites provide settings that enable media to be used according to rules regulating privacy and 
ownership. In most cases, an item is made public or remains private so only invited guests possessing a 
password may view the material. Some sharing sites stipulate all images are public domain and may be 
used in any way. Others are strict about usage. It is important for the business to determine their level 
of comfort with sharing and the potential for an organization to harvest the picture for their commercial 
use before agreeing to the terms of service (McHaney, 2011, p. 118-119). 

In addition to the sites displayed in Table 1.4, a great deal of media is shared using Facebook, MySpace, 
and other social media. Content on those sites is uploaded by users, tagged with descriptive information 
and made available to friends or the general public. 



At Navigant, there is no limit to the impact you 
can have. As you envision your future and all 
the wonderful rewards your exceptional talents 
will bring, we offer this simple guiding principle: 
It's not what we do. It's how we do it. 

Impact matters. 



NAVIGANT 



iavigant.com 



DISPUTES & INVESTIGATIONS • ECC 



3 Navigant Consulting, Inc. All rights reserved. Navigant Consulting 
attest, or public accounting services. 



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23 




Web 2.0 and Social Media for Business 



Introduction to Web 2.0 



Other social publishing sites, such as Scribd and DocStoc, target the exchange of the written word. These 
sites provide online books, articles, presentations, PDF files, textbooks, and other documents. Scribd 
has been called the YouTube of the written word and reports more than 1 billion pages of material 
have been uploaded to its website. Over 60 million people visit Scribd each month and form an active 
community of social publishers and readers. Scribd has a vision of "turnfing] everyone into a publisher 
and creating] the best possible reading experience on the web and mobile platforms (Scribd, 2012)." It 
has released an app called float "that aims to one-up different apps by offering many of the same features 
in one unified reading experience (Mangalindan, 2011)." This app permits reading a variety of different 
material from various sources with a common interface. Scribd also sells commercial works of fiction 
and nonfiction for Web and mobile platforms. Readers' ratings help ensure the best items are the easiest 
to find (See Figure 1.4). 



Scribd 



ientations. Business. Academic 



Explore Documents People 



Art & Design 

Comics 

Microsoft Templates 

Presentations 

Reviews GSS9 

Letters to Our Leaders I 
Books - Fiction 
Books - Nan-fiction 
Brachures/Catalags 
Business. 1 Law 

Court Filings 

Finance 

Marketing 

Press Releases 

Real Estate 

Taxes & Accounting 

Technology 





\7r-first4lawvers 



Featured on Scribd 



1 



An Introduction to 
Stock & Options for 

95.129 Reads 



Preliminary Inquiry 
Into the Matter of 

22,395 Reads 



The Truth About the 
Economy: We're 

11.904 Reads 



k.) 


-Be. 



(==3^1 




Google Settlement 
Rejection Filing 

13,534 Reads 



International 
Women's Day 

11.691 Reads 



Figure 1.4 Scribd Provides Business Documents 

DocStoc specifically is focused on business document sharing and provides services to the small business 
owner. According to its Website, DocStoc aims "for the best quality and widest selection of documents 
used to start, grow, and manage [a] professional life and small business. Docstoc provides the platform 
to upload and share documents with the world, and serves as a vast repository of free and for purchase 
legal, business, financial, technical, and educational documents that can be easily searched, previewed 
and downloaded. (DocStoc, 2012)." Figure 1.5 provides a look at DocStoc's homepage. 



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24 



Web 2.0 and Social Media for Business 



Introduction to Web 2.0 



.ClOCStCbC " ^^T>en)a!lReMXin*iterSmdlB t j^ne»BiJiftDtei5.Hiali 

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Sea roll Over 20 Million Professional Documents 



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We Make Every 
Small Business Better 

The Best QualJiy and Widest Selection 
of Documents and Resources to 
Start, Grow and Manage Your 
Small Business and Professions 



r 
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Docstac Videos - Expert 



for Small Businesses 



Start Using Docstoc 



or create a uotstoc Account 






search Engine 


startups 


Hire the Rigm 


The 21 Goisen 


Optimisation 


Uncensored #23 


Employee: 


Rules of 


With NO 


with Michael 


questions to 


Entrepreneurs^ 



Figure 1.5 DocStoc Focuses on Small Business Needs 

In general, content sharing has redefined the way individuals and businesses look at information creation 
and use. A number of new business models are emerging and these models are enhancing the way that 
businesses can reach out to existing and new customers. Businesses can provide free content with links 
back to their websites or they can use high quality documents and media that have been developed by 
others and made available online. Sites such as Mozy.com and Box.net are also providing mechanisms 
for business content sharing. 

New forms of copyright protection and management are emerging. We will look into Creative Commons 
in a subsequent chapter and explore specific examples of sharing content. 

1 .2.3 Filtering/Recommendations 

The Web 2.0 concepts of interacting, sharing and collaborating have made it possible for individuals 
to develop recommendations and provide their opinions on almost all online content. This grassroots' 
filtering process has an enormous impact on consumer behavior in many ways. First, it creates a new 
level of information that replaces expert opinions once limited to powerful individuals with access to 
the press. For instance, not long ago, newspaper editors decided which stories would become their 
headliners and which stories would be given low priority or not even run. That still happens to some 
extent but social news websites such as Google News, Digg Top News, Reddit, Delicious and others 
promote the stories rated the highest by viewers who also discover and suggest stories. Online stores 
find that product reviews written by customers are often given more credibility than reviews created by 
marketing specialists. 'Likes' on Facebook and other social networks drive incredible amounts of online 
traffic to particular Websites (Volpe, 2007). See Figure 1.6. 

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25 



Web 2.0 and Social Media for Business 



Introduction to Web 2.0 



it « 



FWS j what's hot I new controversial top saved 



reddit is a source for what's new and popular online, vote, on (inks that you tike or dislike and help decide what's 
popular, or submit your own! 



Wikipedia will shut down foi 2A hours Wednesday Lu protasL Lhe Stup Online Pita^y AlI, founder Jimmy Wales, 
announced on Monday. [i*wt»*.4*m) 

"*■ iLibmlvred 13. hours ago fry CQ1SZ77 

124 comments share 

With Tuesday's deadline fast approaching, The New York Times reports that Wisconsin's activists are prepared to submit 
about 720,000 petition signatures, tar surpassing the 540,000 needed to trigger a recall election later this year. 

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news 

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Senator. &-****m. 



4 24 



Twitter boss slams Wiklpedia's "silly 1 So pa protest 

4* share 



* To head off medical conflicts of interest, the Obarna administration is poised to require drug companies to disclose the 

payments they maky to dudoib fur lesearuli, consulting, speaking r Lravel and enter LalumeriL, [«v«nm^**»] 

lubmiBBd 11 hours ago fry Aya.'.1a:< . 

Why Is NBC Universal Threatening To Report Co mm enters They Disagree With To Their Employers? ftaUfauva) 

f ubmifteJ 7 r>&»n mw t. MrnanRiiirKi 

Facebook Gives Politico Deep Access to Users' Political Sentiments (whether your status is set to public or private). 



p ies5= 3 est news terns. 
Your post may be deleted if: 

• it is .nil fiJiliiu.-il nr i>|iiii"i]n ml ic Th. 
- it uses an editorialised title. 

• at links to a paywall site. 

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/r/opinion for editorials. 
fr/msc tor none of the above. 

You may also be interested in: 
/r/woritfnews news tram outside the USA 

The foolish and wicked practice ct profane 
cursina and swearing, is j vice so mean and low 
that evary person of sense and character detestE 
and ffespisfis it," - (lfiongfi Washington 



Figure 1 .6 Reddit News Allows Users to Determine Top Stories 

The collected wisdom of multiple people often provides unanticipated social structures. This means 
new ways of viewing and using information becomes possible. Social bookmarking and tagging are two 
important tools that permit the culture of "filtering and recommending" to thrive within Web 2.0 websites. 




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Web 2.0 and Social Media for Business Introduction to Web 2.0 

Social bookmarking relies on a user community to create a self- organizing reference system based on 
the perceptions of the group. The idea works this way: (1) a community member locates a website they 
wish to remember; (2) they bookmark the page so returning is easier; (3) software adds the individual 
bookmark to a database; (4) the database shares the collected bookmarks with the entire group. A system 
such as this allows a user community to share and categorize large numbers of bookmarks and create an 
index of helpful websites. Instead of sites being grouped according to computer algorithms developed by 
Google, Yahoo, Microsoft, and others, these sites reflect the collective wisdom of people using the web. 
Sites can be ranked based on the number of bookmarks, by the latest activity or other criteria. Users 
contribute their knowledge but have no idea what overall pattern will result. 

From an individual perspective, social bookmarking is valuable because it provides a way to store 
collections of bookmarks that are not tied to a specific computer. By logging into the social bookmarking 
website, users can access their favorite pages from any computer with an Internet connection. 

From a group perspective, social bookmarking provides a way to democratize the Web and shift power 
from computing organizations to individual users. Helpful pages are selected by people that need to use 
the pages and therefore the bookmarks should represent higher quality content (See Table 1.6). 



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27 



Web 2.0 and Social Media for Business 



Introduction to Web 2.0 



Site 



Web Address 



Description 




http://digg.com/ 



Digg allows people to discover and share content from 
anywhere on the web. Users can bookmark sites from the 
biggest online destinations to the most obscure blog. Digg 
ranks the results as voted on by our community. 



£^| StumbleUpon 



http://www.stumbleupon.com 



Based on user interest profiles, StumbleUpon suggests web 
pages, videos, photos and more. Users provide like' or 'Dislike' 
recommendations to drive future content choices. 



reddlt 



http://www.reddit.com/ 



Reddit tracks what's new and popular on the web using votes 
from users. Users can bump up or down deciding what's good 
(^) and what's junk (+). 



Bra 



http://www.buzzfeed.com 



BuzzFeed is essentially social bookmarking for pop culture 
items. They suggest marking an outrageous video about to 
go viral, obscure subculture breaking into the mainstream, 
Hollywood gossip and so forth. This site focuses on movies, 
music, and products that are on the rise. 



J 



ttel.icio.iis 
social bookmarking 



http://www.delicious.com/ 



One of the original social bookmarking sites, Delicious helps 
users find material on the Web and collect it for easy sharing. 



ffldipmarks 



http://www.clipmarks.com/ 



Clipmarks.com is a variant of social bookmarking that enables 
users to see clips of text, images or video related to topics 
people find while surfing the web. 




http://www.diigo.com/ 



Diigo started as a popular social bookmarking site but now 
offers web annotation and collaborative research services 
together with collecting capability for screenshots, pictures, 
notes, and more. Also offers mobile platform support. 



(chimejn 



http://chime.in/ 



Chime.ln is an interest network where users share, connect, 
and build communities around their favorite topics. 



Table 1.6 Popular Social Bookmarking and Related Sites 

Tags are closely related to social bookmarking and are often used as a key component of these sites. Tags 
are essentially descriptive keywords assigned by people to help identify the content of a resource on the 
web. This resource can be a webpage, image, blog entry, video, or anything else. These keywords are 
meant to make it easier to find a resource again or to better describe a page for future searches. Tags are 
informally assigned by a viewer or item owner'. As more users contribute their tags, a collection grows. 
This collection is known as a folksonomy. 



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28 



Web 2.0 and Social Media for Business 



Introduction to Web 2.0 



Tagging is one of the major underlying tools that have enabled Web 2.0 to become driven by individuals 
and their collaborative perspectives. Figures 1.1 and 1.2 in this chapter both illustrate the use of tag clouds 
generated by how often words occur. The more often a tag set developed by a user contains common 
words, the larger that word becomes in the cloud. Cloud tags can be generated on the Website called 
Wordle.net (see Figure 1.7). 




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Web 2.0 and Social Media for Business 



Introduction to Web 2.0 



SI0P CENSORSHIP^ 



Create 



Gallery Credits News 



Forum 



FAQ 



Advanced 



\/\/ordle is a toy for generating "word clouds" from text that you 

provide. The clouds give greater prominence to words that appear 
more frequently in the source text. You can tweak your clouds with 
different fonts, layouts, and color schemes. The images you create with 
Wordle are yours to use however you like. You can print them out or 
save them to the Wordle gallery to share with your friends. 

Create your own. 

View some examples created by others... 







English notebook cover 
by Ace Acedemic! 
2 years, 5 months ago 



Period G 

by Meredith 

2 years, 4 months ago 



US Constitution 

by Jonathan 

2 years, 1 month ago 



Most Common Crossword 

Answers 

by Jonathan 

3 years, 1 month ago 



Figure 1.7 Wordle.net Homepage 

Tagging is not limited to just virtual applications. In fact, tagging is now used by owners of mobile 
devices to describe real world geographic locations, features, and other objects. Sekai Camera of Japan 
offers technology that uses the iPhone camera to overlay tags and information onto any object in the 
real world. Other users can look through their camera and see icons pop up that contain information 
on buildings, stores, sightseeing spots or objects (Toto, 2009). Although in its infancy, this technology 
(or others like it) promises to create an augmented reality that provides a vast number of new business 
opportunities. Marketing, advertising, information services, and other applications will thrive in this 
augmented reality environment. 

The underlying technology driving this use of tagging results when mobile devices take pictures and 
read bar codes that are linked to geospatial databases. GPS coordinates are attached to a database of tags 
that describe the real world objects. Museums, conference halls, parks, businesses and other entities are 
exploring these ideas to virtualize the real world. Some believe this could eventually form the basis for 
recreating the physical world in cyberspace and in metaverses (McHaney, 2011, p. 87). Several technical 
issues remain. For instance, cameras don't have embedded compasses so the device doesn't know which 
direction it is being pointed when tags are retrieved. Users need to intervene and select from a number 
of different tag sets to rectify this problem. 



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30 



Web 2.0 and Social Media for Business Introduction to Web 2.0 

Social bookmarking and tagging provide a basic technology that helps filter and classify some of the vast 
information on the Web. Drawbacks do exist. Sometimes tags are misspelled or inaccurate. Information 
can be wrongly classified. There are no tagging standards and language issues can be a barrier. Tags can 
have different structures with some being plural and others singular, and so forth. However, even with 
these problems, Web 2.0 is being built by people for people. 

1.2.4 Web Applications 

Another aspect of Web 2.0 is the amazing proliferation of easy-to-use, low-cost tools called apps. Whether 
for business, pleasure, or individual productivity, hundreds of thousands of cross-platform applications 
are readily available for nearly every imaginable use. Business users can visit the Apple or Android App 
store and find tools to help accomplish tasks using mobile devices. The general premise is that these web 
applications are conveniently available over networks and can be easily discovered and downloaded by 
users. The Apple App Store and the Android Store provide a mechanism to accomplish this for mobile 
devices. Their infrastructure helps drive down distribution and maintenance costs. Apps are also available 
from other sources (typically websites) and may not always be focused on mobile devices. 

Common business applications include: virtual office tools, database systems, webmail, graphics 
manipulation software, video and audio editors, accounting software, customer relationship management 
(CRM), sales force management, human resources, project management, and countless others. This 
aspect of Web 2.0 will be described in subsequent chapters. Table 1.7 provides a list of top business apps 
recommended by PC Magazine and others. 



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31 



Web 2.0 and Social Media for Business 



Introduction to Web 2.0 



App 


Icon 


Description 


Dragon Diction 




Voice transcription software with the ability to share 
messages via e-mail, Facebook, and Twitter. 


dragonI 


~^^^^^^^^^^^~* 


Dropbox for iPad 


o 


Free app enables offline file sharing between desktops, 
laptops, and mobile devices. 


FileMaker Go 


!§!.■ 


Allows users to access databases on the go without 
needing a laptop or PC. 




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Web 2.0 and Social Media for Business 



Introduction to Web 2.0 



App 



Icon 



Description 



iWork 




This is really three apps: Keynote for presentations, 
Numbers for spreadsheets and Pages for word 
processing. These three apps give a user the ability to 
transform a mobile device into a personal productivity 
too. 



Line2 




Transforms a mobile device into a call center with fully- 
featured phone systems that can send and receive calls 
and text messages over Wi-Fi or 3G connections. Permits 
caller ID, multiple calls, visual and email based voicemail, 
call waiting, conferencing, call forwarding. 



LogMeln Ignition 



i& 



Provides anytime or place remote access to all of a user's 
computers. 



Quickofflce Pro 




Allows users to create, edit, access and share MS-Offlce 
files. 



Twitter 




This mobile microblogging tool allows a user to receive 
twitter updates and to send tweets to followers. 



Power.ME 



£L 



POWEFMVE 



This is a project management app that also organizes all 
tasks, notes, calendar dates, and computer files. 



SpringPad 




This free app allows users to quickly save the ideas, 
notes, thoughts, messages, websites and other 
important information using the web, phone or mobile 
device 



Table 1.7 Sample of Useful Apps for Business 



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33 



Web 2.0 and Social Media for Business Introduction to Web 2.0 

1.3 Conclusions 

Business practices are being transformed by emerging capabilities enabled by the Internet and Web 
technologies. The most recent changes are related to Web 2.0 and the use of mobile smart devices. We 
introduced the components of Web 2.0 including: (1) social media, (2) filtering and recommendations, 
(3) content sharing, and (4) Web applications. All these technologies are causing organizations to rethink 
the way they do business and connect with their customers, employees and other stakeholders. 

Chapter 1 only provided an overview of the technologies we will explore in more detail throughout this 
book. As you will see, the business opportunities available to today's students are really unprecedented. 
You are in a position to be part of a movement to redefine the future of business. It is an exciting time to 
be preparing to enter the work force. The next chapter continues the discussion of Web 2.0 technologies 
looking specifically at blogging and related technologies. 

1.4 Bibliography 

Berners-Lee, T, Cailliau, R., Luotonen, A., Nielsen, H.E, and Secret, A. (1994). "The World-Wide Web." 
Communications of the ACM 37(8). pp. 76-82. 

Bishop, T. (2004, January 26). Microsoft Notebook: Wiki pioneer planted the seed and watched it grow. 
Seattlepi.com. http://www.seattlepi.com/business/158020 msftnotebook26.html 

Blizzard Entertainment (2011). "World of Warcraft subscriber base reaches 12 million worldwide." 
Blizzard Entertainment, http://us.blizzard.com/en-us/company/press/pressreleases.html? 101 007 

Creative Commons (2012). Creative Commons Homepage, http://creativecommons.org . 

DocStoc (2012). DocStoc About Page, http://www.docstoc.com/about/ 

Elliot, A.M. (2010). "Ten YouTube Tips for Small Businesses." Mashable Business. 
http://mashable.com/2010/04/23/youtube-small-business/ 

Evans, M.K. (2009). "34 Ways to Use YouTube for Business." Webworkerdaily. 
http://gigaom.com/collaboration/34-ways-to-use-youtube-for-business/ 

Harding-Rolls, P. (2009). "Subscription MMOGs: Life beyond World of Warcraft." Screen Digest. 
http://www.screendigest.com/news/gi-270309-PHR/view.html 

Jeffries, A. (2010). "Phones, TVs, Cars Leading the Way to 22 Billion Internet- Connected Things." Read 
Write Web Website. Quoted information from IMS Research ( http://www.imsresearch.com/ ). Retrieved 
from: http://www.readwriteweb.com/archives/22 billion phones tvs cars on internet of things.php 

Download free eBooks at bookboon.com 

34 



Web 2.0 and Social Media for Business Introduction to Web 2.0 

Kaplan, A.M., Haenlein, M. (2010). "Users of the world, unite! The challenges and opportunities of social 
media". Business Horizons 53(1): pp. 59-68. 

Laningham, S. (2006). developerWorks Interviews: Tim Berners-Lee, developerWorks Website, IBM, 
Retrieved from: http://www.ibm.com/developerworks/podcast/dwi/cm-int082206txt.html 

Leiner, B.M., Vinton G. Cerf, V.G., Clark, D.D., Kahn, R.E., Kleinrock, L., Lynch, D.C., Postel, J., 
Roberts, L.G., Wolff, S. (2011). "Brief History of the Internet, Internet Society Website." 
http://www.internetsociety.org/internet/internet-51/history-internet/brief-history-internet 

Love, D. (2011). "Ten Terrific Business Podcasts." 
http://www.businessinsider.com/ten-terrific-business-podcasts-20 11-1 ?op= 1 

Mangalindan, J.P. (2011). "Meet Float: Scribds all-in-one mobile reader." CNN Money. Retrieved from: 
http://tech.fortune.cnn.com/201 l/07/19/scribd-float-reader/?section=money topstories 

McAfee, A. (2006). "Enterprise 2.0: The Dawn of Emergent Collaboration." MIT Sloan Management 
Review 47(3). pp. 21-28. 

McGee, M. (2012). "How to Market on Flickr." Small Business Search Marketing. 
http://www.smallbusinesssem.com/articles/marketing-on-flickr/ 

McHaney, R.W. (2011). The New Digital Shoreline: How Web 2.0 and Millennial Are Revolutionizing 
Higher Education. Stylus Publishing. 

Noor, A.K. (2009). "Disruption from the Virtual World." Mechanical Engineering Magazine. 
http://memagazine.asme.org/Articles/2009/November/Disruption from Virtual World.cfm. 

Scribd. (2012). Scribd Homepage. Scribd.com: http://www.scribd.com/ 

Stephenson, N. (1992). Snow Crash. Bantam Spectra. 

Stone, L. (2009). "Why Managing Vulnerability and Reputation is More Important than Ever Before." 

http://lindastone.net/2009/12/05/why-managing-vulnerability-and-reputation-is-more-important- 

than-ever-before/ 

Toto, S. (2009). "Tagging the Real World: Sekai Camera For The iPhone is Alive and Very Cool." 
TechCrunch. 

http://techcrunch.com/2009/02/17/tagging-the-real-world-sekai-camera-for-the-iphone-is-alive-and- 
very-cool/ 

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35 



Web 2.0 and Social Media for Business Introduction to Web 2.0 

W3C (2009). "World Wide Web Consortium (W3C) About the Consortium." 
http://www.w3.org/standards/ 

Wikipedia (2012). Twitter. Retrieved from: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Twitter 

Wortham, J. (2007). "After 10 years of blogs, the future's brighter than ever." Wired. 
http://www.wired.com/entertainment/theweb/news/2007/12/blog anniversary/ 



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36 



Web 2.0 and Social Media for Business 



Blogging for Business 



2 Blogging for Business 

Blogs were among the first applications to become associated with the transition from static web pages 
to social media. In early forms, blogs were most commonly used as online journals and had evolved 
from Usenet, bulletin board systems, and moderated newsgroups. In the mid- 1990 s more online journals 
began to appear. These journals were soon known as weblogs. This word eventually was shortened to 
'blog' by Jorn Barger (Wortham, 2007). 

In their original form, weblogs were not collaborative technologies. Instead, they gave an individual 
voice to a person wishing to place their thoughts and opinions into an unedited public space. This 
one-to-many communication tool soon was updated to allow readers to post comments and provide 
feedback. Since that time, the blog has become a place where material can be synthesized, mashed, and 
then opened to comments. Likes and dislikes can be noted. Video, audio, images and other media can 
be incorporated into blog entries. A variety of blogging tools, websites, and services have emerged in 
support. As of Feb. 2011, the Nielsen Company reported that over 156 million blogs existed on the web 
(Nielsen Company, 2011a) and that next to Facebook, more minutes were spent by web users on the 
website Blogger.com than any other site (Nielsen Company, 2011b). 



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37 




Web 2.0 and Social Media for Business 



Blogging for Business 



Why should business pay attention to the blog? The widespread use of blogging technology alone is reason 
enough to consider the implications for connecting with potential customers, promoting products and 
developing a recognized business presence. A business blog can give an organization the opportunity 
to get its message out into the world in the way it desires. Business blogs can come from many sources 
within an organization including the CEO, a marketing executive, product development department, 
product support specialist, and others. 

When reading a business blog, it is important to realize it has been developed to achieve a particular 
organizational goal. For instance, the General Motors Fastlane Blog has entries written by a team and 
often features executives talking about exciting new developments and issues that promote the company's 
image as environmentally conscious and socially responsible (See Figure 2.1). Walmart Corporation blogs 
about its corporate giving and support of community activities (See Figure 2.2). Both of these examples 
are typical of larger corporations. They get their message out into the world without external editors, 
reviewers, or perspectives being interjected. They can control which reader comments are posted and 
which are not displayed. 



Fastlane Blog 



Home Auto Shows Business Cars a Trucks Concept Cars Design FYI Photo of the Day Volt Webchats 

General Motors Makes Susta inability Progress; Commits to the Future recent i 



ary 13,2012 at 7:42 pr 









Wast* Reduction 

92 fi 


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€MBJofia> 


2 5 Billion A 




EnergyEfftciency 

25 Million $ 

--■'• * 
rt 3 15 Million 

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Resource Preservation 

32 ^ 

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<ft21 

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Progress; Commits to tti 



VIDEO: Getting to Know the Verari' 



RECENT COMMENTS 



teebiro on A Better Rotor 
getalifeagain on Happy Hr'^" 
DanieJ Siboni on 'oil Web Chat Tods 
Steve Degraote on Did You Know? G 
Dealers Provide Superior Customer 



* Chevy SxSW Road Trip 



Figure 2.1 GM Fastlane Blog 



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38 



Web 2.0 and Social Media for Business 



Blogging for Business 




> Communfty & Giving 



Ths Walmart 
Foundation 



Community & Giving 



At Walmart. w& beliave m a philosophy of operating globally and giving back locally. We know we can 
make me greatest impact on our communities d/ supporting causes that are important to our 
customers right in their own neighborhoods. We're proud to be a "store of ttie community"" for all of ttie 
communities we serve By raping to provide financial and volunteer support to moie man lOD.DOu 
charitable and community-focused organizations, and by using our locations to provide opportunities 
for our customers ana associates to give back. 

Hunger Relief 
I , Wafinarl anil ttie WalmarL FuurirJatiuri liave cunniiiLLetl 52 Utlliun tasli arnJ in-kiriil, 

MytUirlC] startping un ftffnrts tn help find hungfif tn Amprlca 

hunger 
together 



u 



Military RLinrwin 

At Walmsrt, we recognize the important rote the military, veterans and their 
families play in our nation. As one of the nation's largest private employers of 
■ veterans and those on active duty, we value military experience. 

'A. 



Recent Community & Giving News 

From the Press Room Section 
Dec. 23. 20 11 - Walmart Gives 5200,000 to 1 Q Nonprofits on me 1 2th Day of Holiday Facefoook. 



Connect wilh Walmart 
ELfce 11,2m 
j#» Fol»w@w3lm3rl 



Figure 2.2 Walmart Corporate Blog 

Small businesses can also use blogs to further their organizational missions. Many times startup 
companies use blogs as low cost advertising. They also may be hoping to become better known through 
social media, social networking connections, and viral marketing. For instance, the Goodman Jones 
Chartered Accountants blog from London provides advice and information about trends of interest to 
individuals or companies that might require their services. This blog seeks to enhance the reputation 
and give a public voice to the firm (See Figure 2.3). 



GOODMAN JONES 

C H A B 1 F « F D ACCOll N TANTS 




ib AHPo.to KPI Wiki | Pcoplt I About Goodman Jonci 



Tax Strategies Guide 
Downturn] uus *uB leuuiL 



Tax Autumn Statement 
Guide 

Download «m nJ report 




Recent Posts 



i The Chancellor's been listening! 

r* tj- Peter Ftooot on 3&-11ED11 15 15 t 



s© 



With exquisite timing given my Muriday't post, Lhe Chdni-dlur's 
Autumn StdLeinent included further changes lu Lhe Enterprise Investment 
scheme, the most interesting of which is the creation or" the seed Enterprise 
investment scheme, 

From Lhe stdrL uf the uevw tax yedr, qudlifyiny invesLuienls intu stdrt-ujj 
businesses will dUidct a fairly extraordinary 50% incuine tax relief - but even 
more extraordinary, if the funds .,, 



\ This Recession's Gone On Long Enough! 

f£ riyPfiUMRngrtnnriviiCTiii ifi*?QM 

k3L 




@i 



k Co(EQDfk4 Buaincisa Wallers 



When Northern Ruck colldpsed in Llie summer rjf 2007, w« blew we were in fur 
trouble, what we didn't know was either how much, or how lonq. I'd say on 
both counts we've all been proved wrong - it's a brute of a recession, it's already 
over 4 years old, and current best reckoning is we've still got another 3 or more 
years to run before GDP recovers to pre- crisis levels. 



Quick Search 



QPwpte 



Mast Read Pasts (All) 

■ ErrpfayerE hit by national 
irmirarce «?ireow (2436) 

■ Ctairotax-afeculdYoulK 
wonted about aeOBDon? M 163) 

■ nnitfciqyiiM' wny Jimurwi (1013) 

■ Offshore Disclosure The 
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■ Tlu> nuNhMK Pnynwcir 5nnpnfl 
Serviced) 



Techno bgy From IT 
Counts 

■ T<w Oulrfjifirt: Retwronu - Is 
everyone Keeping it up Id dsla 



21/0FED12 22.-3B 

■ KnnfifjKf! Ffflti»rt Flasm 
20/01/2012 1G-2B 

■ Tlio intocr*'. Markm/l and 
SOPA. Hrluls il all ouuuL 7 



Figure 2.3 Small Business Blog from Goodman Jones 



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39 



Web 2.0 and Social Media for Business 



Blogging for Business 



2.1 Voice and Personality 

Effective use of blogs in a business setting requires understanding several key attributes. Among these 
are: voice, frequency, style, features and passion. Each attribute represents a component of an overall 
personality for the blog and will determine the types of audience that will find the blog useful or 
interesting. 

Blogs can be written from many different perspectives. A blog's voice refers to the way the entries are 
presented and worded. For most blogs, this means a departure from a journalism type voice where facts 
and events are described and instead aiming to create an everyday conversation that makes the messages 
sound personal to the readers. Most blogs are not a collection of articles. Instead, readers expect to find 
specific opinions and a representation of the person doing the writing. When comparing blog entries to 
newspaper writing, it is helpful to think of the blogs being more similar to opinion columns and editorials 
than to headline articles. A blog's voice will embody the approach the writer takes for communication. 
Blogs often use humor, sarcasm, self- deprecation, irony, over-the-top seriousness, or other approaches 
to create a voice that captures the readers' attention. 




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yGarsof 



innovation 

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> 140 nationalities 

> 85 countries of operation 



Who are we? 

We are th9 world's largest oilfield 
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We're looking for high-energy, self- 
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40 




Web 2.0 and Social Media for Business 



Blogging for Business 



A second attribute of a blog's personality is the frequency with which articles are published. Remember, 
blogs are a form of technology that allow the writer's material to be instantly available to the public. 
Timely material can be published and a sense of immediacy may be expected of the blog. So, when a 
significant event occurs, it is helpful to update the blog right away. It is also helpful for the readers if 
the writer of the blog never allows more than a predetermined time to pass without adding an article. 
Depending on the audience and the goals for a blog, this might be a day, a week, or some other time 
frame. Most people subscribe to blogs so your updates will automatically become available to them when 
you publish an entry. It can be a fine balance between too many entries and not enough. By monitoring 
your blog's traffic statistics, you can eventually determine a good entry frequency approach. 

Blog style can also be important to success and readership. A blog that looks amateurish will reflect 
on readers' perceptions of your business. Most blog hosting sites offer themes which are preformatted 
configurations. Themes may be free or they may be premium and cost money. Figure 2.4 shows example 
WordPress blog themes from the many thousands available. 



m 



Manage Themes 



Install Themes 



Search | Search Results | Upload | Featured | Newest | Recently Updated 
Search for themes by keyword,, author, or tag. 



Term [T] 






Search 



i Feature 3 

4CI001 rttta I r r ,.V.il-- ittaM 
QjOerCI-iKTip"!^ 



i Feature 

Install I Preview 

iFeature 3 is a FREE Professional 
WordPress Theme designed by 
GyberChimps.com. iFeature 3 features an 
elegant Apple-like design with support for 
HTML5 and CSS3, iFeature Slider, intuitive 
theme options, post formats support, 
per-page options with drag S. drop page 
elements [Twitter for WordPress support), 
custom logo support, social icons, a 
widgetized sidebar and footer, and 
typography options. 

Details 






Light Clean Blue 

Install I Preview 

Light, stylish, simple and readable with 
modern menu. S Ed-friendly theme 
structure. 

Details 




Desk Mess Mirrored 

Install I Preview 

Marble desktop covered with a mix of old 
and new items, such as some vintage 
papers, a stainless steel pen, and, a hot 
cup of coffee! Now with more 
documentation and post-format support for 
the following types: asides, quotes and 
status! Please readthe included 
changelog.txt, readme.txt, and support.txt 
files for details of the latest changes and 
important notices. Please note WordPress 
3.1.0 is required for some functionality; also 
note the latest version of the Multi 
Child-Theme is available for download at 
http J/buyn owshop.com/th erne s/des k- 
mess-mirrored/multi too! 



Figure 2.4 Example WordPress Blog Themes 



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41 



Web 2.0 and Social Media for Business 



Blogging for Business 



In order to be successful, more than the appearance of the blog is important. Other features must be in 
place to ensure social and traditional web searches can easily find the content being published and to 
share it via syndication (covered in the RSS Feeds section 4.1). In general, business blogs can be fitted 
with mechanisms which enable search engine optimization (SEO), social media optimization (SMO), and, 
if desired, monetization. Monetization can be direct through advertising revenue or indirect through the 
capture of potential customer leads. Blogs are often a key component of marketing campaigns and must 
consider the broader picture. Table 2.1 illustrates other features that should be considered (Pollitt, 201 1). 



Blog Feature 



Explanation 



Example 



Name or Title 
of Blog 



The name of a business blog is very 
important. It becomes both a brand 
and a recognizable entity attached to 
the business. Having a good title will 
enable a blog to stand out in a list of 
subscriptions and will provide a sense 
of purpose for the blog's goals. 




Southwest airlines say: "Our goal with the new Nuts 
About Southwest remains to give our visitors the 
opportunity to take a look inside Southwest Airlines and 
to interact with us."The name conveys fun and whimsy 
and they achieve their goal with this site. 
http://www.blogsouthwest.com/ 



Share Buttons 



Social media and bookmarking are 
among the best mechanisms for 
blogs to gain recognition and find an 
audience. Adding share buttons makes 
it easy for existing readers to promote 
the site. 



MORE WAYS TO GO NUTS 
□ f 



The Nuts About Southwest blog provides a number of 
access buttons for sharing entries. Twitter, Facebook, 
Flickr, Linkedln, YouTube, Gowalla and Foursquare are all 
included near the top of the blog. 



(^ynjvit 9 



248 Q Share This 



Each entry ends with a Luv, Tweet and Facebook button 
for sharing a particular entry. The ShareThis button 
brings up another set of potential sites for social media 
and bookmarking (See Figure 2.5). 



Subscriptions 



Blogs need to have subscription 
capability. Subscriptions automatically 
send new blog entries to the reader in 
their email or use RSS capability to load 
new entries into a blog reader. Potential 
subscribers need both options. 



JOIN OUR COMMUNITY 



D 



The Southwest blog invites readers to join the 
community which will create an email subscription and 
give the reader the ability to post comments under a 
pseudonym. It also provides an RSS button (the orange 
one above) that allows a subscription to be entered into 
blog aggregator software such as Gator or a portal such 
as NetVibes. 



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42 



Web 2.0 and Social Media for Business 



Blogging for Business 



Blog Feature 



Explanation 



Example 



Call to Action 



In order to keep the interest of readers, 
blogs need to be more than just 
reporting content. This is particularly 
true for business blogs. Blogs need a call 
to action or at least need to be sure they 
are presenting actions being taken by 
the company to forward moral agenda. 
Customers can be invited to participate 
in a call to action graphic or text. 



Help fund free 
mammograms 
with one dick. 



* 



This is an example graphic that can be added to a blog 
to promote a favored charity. Southwest often promotes 
charities this way. 



Partnering 
with Social 
Media 



Certain readers will prefer to use the 
blog via their social media accounts. It 
is important to give them this option. 



SEARCH 










Q Q 






JOIN OUR COMMUNITY 


E 3 



In the Southwest Blog, a Facebook Connect button has 
been added to allow the blog to be engaged through 
social media. 



Blog 

Categories 
and Tags 



Be sure to tag blog entries and 
categorize them appropriately. Good 
tagging can serve multiple purposes: 
With appropriate categories, visitors can 
look for particular topics on the blog 
site. Also, using tags and categories 
helps get more of your content into 
search engine indexes in relevant and 
accurate ways as each tag and category 
will have its own URL indexed by 
Google. 





Categories 








All Categories Most Used 




] Everyday Life 




□ Students 




] Technology 




] Uncategorized 




CI Web 2.Q in Classroom 



Tags 



(Add) 



Separate tags with commas 

Choose from the most used tags 

WordPress facilitates adding tags and categories to blog 
entries as shown above. 



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43 



Web 2.0 and Social Media for Business 



Blogging for Business 



Blog Feature 


Explanation 


Example 


End of Post 
Actions 


At the end of a blog post, readers 
should be given options regarding what 
to do next. This might entail leaving a 
comment, sharing the post, or reading 
additional, related material. 




(^Jljvu 27 J 26 QshareTriis Qo 


Trackback URL: http:WwwwblogsoiilhweEt.com/trackback/3733 


Similar Posts 

Q Totally Indy! Celebrating Two } Colicchio is Fun To Sav 
Decades of ... 

Q Culiudiiu Is Fun Tit Say | Yuu Make Mb FkhI Liks 

Sundancir 




Southwest's blog provides a blog post reader with 
several options upon completion. They invite the reader 
to share the post via several choices. They allow the 
reader to 'like' the post. They provide a trackback URL 
for the reader's use. They also list similar posts that 
might be of interest. Finally, they provide a quick way to 
leave a comment and allow the reader to view existing 
comments on the article. 


Comments 


Blogs can use comments to ignite 
discussions and drive traffic to their 
website. It also can be used as a metric 
to determine the interest in a blog. 








Just wondering if you guys were planning on adding any PVD or MUT to IND flights As 
yuu may Iukjw. Palriula fans aie From all uv«i New England, and I'm sure yuu Luuld UN 
a plana or 2 from both citiacl 

Justin C (not venfied) — 01-23-2012 at 11:4 5 AM 

Why not Providence (PVU)? fhals the airport the patnots use and thats the airport 
(draast Lu Ititf sLadium and ran base, ll'd make nsiue stiiist lu have the lliyhls from 
there! 

Hick (not verified) — 01-23-2012 at 02 1 8 PM 

Southwest's blog has an active set of comments and 
discussions following most posts. 



Table 2.1 Desirable Blog Features 



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Web 2.0 and Social Media for Business 



Blogging for Business 



Share this to: 




Back to default view 


5 


^ 7Live7 


OA1 Webmarks 


Q Adfty 


.*. 


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A Amazon Wishlist 


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U Delicious 


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M .net Shoutout 


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la Edmodo 





Dd not track 



Figure 2.5 Additional Social Media Site Southwest Lists for Its Blog 

Finally, blogs need to exhibit passion for the subject covered. They work best as direct-to-the-point 
entries that don't get too wordy or long. The following suggestions can help a writer ensure their material 
conveys passion: 

Read Fresh and Thought-Provoking Material: Don't limit your reading to current news and the same blog 
entries that everyone else reads. It will be reflected in your blog. It will lack freshness and fail to have a 
unique voice. Writing output directly relates to reading input. Absorb new and fresh ideas by observing 
the world, talking to people working in related areas, reading old and unusual books, and spending time 
reflecting and thinking. Attempt to discover useful subject matter not related to your blog that will add 
value because of the author's style or way of approaching topics. Seek to find unexpected inspiration and 
new ways of viewing your topics from these alternative sources. 

Blogs Dont Need to be Balanced: Blogs are useful in conveying an opinion. Remember, people reading 
blogs will read more than just your company blog. For a specific blog entry, it is better to choose a 
direction and make a strong case for it. Reader comments can provide alternative points of view and 
perhaps build a case for the opposing set of arguments. This is a good way to create a discussion online. 
If an entry is meant to influence readers, provide them with the best arguments for your opinion. This 
will convey passion. 



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Blogging for Business 



Passion becomes the elusive but essential component to powerful and compelling writing. A blog entry 
with passion will unleash the opinions of others and encourage them to reply and provide their thoughts 
to the community a business blog seeks to build. Passion will ensure a blogs message is carried beyond 
the website. Good writing may challenge opinions, offer alternatives to traditional views, and even offend 
or scare some readers. A passionate entry may be proven wrong and perhaps ruffle feathers but it will 
change minds and help build a reader base. 

2.2 Blog Environments 

A variety of environments exist for the implementation of blogs. A primary decision for businesses is 
whether to host their blog internally or use a hosting service. The second option is often associated with 
cloud computing solutions. 

2.2.1 Internally Hosted Blogs 

Hosting a blog internally has advantages and disadvantages. Internally hosted blogs means that the 
organization will need to have the computing hardware and software in-house. For small businesses just 
starting out, this might represent a challenge. For businesses that already have an IT department and a 
computing infrastructure, this will not pose a big challenge because blog hosting software is relatively 
stable and easy to install and use. Internally hosting a blog provides a business with more flexibility and 
freedom. It also ensures that the organization possesses and holds the data and information associated 
with the Website. It can be more easily integrated with the business Website and it allows the organization 
to develop an internal expertise with the administration of a blog. Table 2.2 provides examples of software 
that can be acquired for internally hosted blog sites. 



Software 


Website 


Comments 


Word Press 


http://wordpress.org/ 

^fe WordRress.com 

A better way 
to blog. 




This is the most popular open source blogging 
platform on the web. Millions of blogs and 
general websites use it because it offers so many 
features and has many add-ins, plugins, themes, 
and extensions available. In addition, to being 
self-hosted, blogs can use hosting services with it 
directly or through third-party websites such as 
iPage.com. WordPress uses PHP and is available 
in numerous languages. Many experts believe 
this is the best blogging software available. It 
also supported by a large number of online 
communities. 



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Blogging for Business 



Software 


Website 


Comments 


Movable Type 


http://www.movabletvpe.orq/ 


Movable Type is open source blogging software 
with a long history. It was released in 2001 by a 
company called Six Apart. Many business blogs use 
this platform which can also host multiple weblogs, 
standalone content pages, and standalone websites. 
It also has file management features, user roles, 
templates, tags, categories, and trackback links. 
Movable has a large and active user community as 
well. 


1 MOVABLE TYPE'org 1 


Ktl 


1 Movable Type is a professional publishing platform. 1 




TextPattern 


http://textpattern.com/ 
^^ TEXTPATTERN 


Textpattern was developed as a content 
management system. It is open source but was 
intended to be more of a general-purpose website 
tool. It is PHP and relies on a MySQL database. The 
current stable version is Textpattern. Many blog 
sites use this software because of its flexibility and 
browser-based interface in over 40 languages. It is 
favored by many developers with IT skills. 


Drupal 


http://drupal.orq/ 


Drupal is another general purpose web publishing 
environment and content management system. It is 
free and open source and currently is used by about 
1 .5% of all Websites operating. More than just a 
blogging tool, it is used for corporate, government, 
and personal websites, knowledge management, 
and collaboration. The Drupal Core contains account 
management tools, menu systems, RSS-feeds, layout 
customization tools, and system administration 
components. Drupal is highly supported by 
communities of users. More than 1 1,000 free add- 
ons for the software have been developed. 


Drupal 




Joomla 


http://www.joomla.orq/ 


Joomla is a very popular open source content 
management system reporting more than 21 
million downloads between March, 2007 and 
February, 201 1 . It is used primarily as a website 
development tool but has found favor with 
many bloggers. Joomla is relatively easy-to-use. 
It is written in PHP and has built-in features that 
enable blog development and implementation of 
related features such as RSS feeds, news flashes, 
polls, searches, and other tools. Joomla has active 
user communities. There are over 8600 free and 
commercial extensions available from the official 
Joomla Extension Directory and even more from 
other third-party sources. 


IVjoomlafl 





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Blogging for Business 



Software 


Website 


Comments 


BlogEngine 


http://www.dotnetbloqenqine.net/ 

blogengi^ 


This blogging platform is open source and is used 
primarily by IT Developers that work with the ASP. 
NET platform available from Microsoft. BlogEngine 
provides a number of modern and attractive 
themes. It also provides extensions developed by a 
community of users. It has a much smaller user base. 


ExpressionEngine 




ittp://expressionenqine.com/ 




ExpressionEngine is a high end, commercial 
blogging tool widely used by bloggers, particularly 
those in businesses needing a very polished image. 
ExpressionEngine is well supported by its internal 
staff and provides a user community on its website. 
ExpressionEngine provides a number of demos and 
sales support tools on its website. 




(£?) ExpressionEngine 











Table 2.2 Self-Hosted Blog Platforms 

2.2.2 Blog Hosting Services 

Many businesses decide to host their blogs on third-party websites. This makes particularly good sense 
for startup businesses attempting to control their initial costs and for small businesses that have limited 
internal IT infrastructure. Many individual bloggers also take this approach. 




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www.ubs.com/graduates 



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Among the advantages (in addition to not needing to maintain a hosting platform) are that software 
upgrades are done either automatically or with minimal effort, help support lines and customer service 
are usually available, the blog may be automatically submitted to search engines, and much of the 
installation and setup process may be automated. This means it is easier to get a blog started and noticed. 

Some disadvantages also exist. For instance, business data is residing on another organizations hosting 
platform. If the hosting company went out of business or changed cost structure, a small business might 
have a difficult time recovering its data. However, many of the bigger blog hosts have been in business 
for a number of years and are more likely to be bought by larger firms rather than just close their doors. 

Hosted blogs can be placed on free websites or on sites that cost a fee. Generally, fee structures are not 
high and provide benefits that far outweigh the costs. Blogs started in completely free services generally 
do not offer unique domain names. This means the blog will have a name that contains part of the service 
name. For instance, RogerMcHaney.blogger.com might be the result. Table 2.3 provides examples of free 
blogging services. 



Software 


Website 


Comments 








http://www.livejournal.com/ 


This blog site in some way predates the idea 
of blogging and offers an online journal motif. 
LiveJournal has existed since 1999 and has a very large 
active community of writers and bloggers. Not many 
businesses use this as a blogging platform. 




ill VEJOURNAL 
















http://wordpress.com/ 


WordPress provides hosting on their Website for those 
who do not wish to install and host the free software 
themselves.WordPress.com is powerful and has all the 
advantages of self-hosted blogs. By default a user gets 
a domain name like this: 

rogermchaney.wordpress.com 

Later a business can opt to purchase a custom domain 
name. This is a good approach for a free, startup 
business blog. 




(OT) WordPress.com 






Q Blogger 


https://www.blogger.com/start 


Blogger is an easy-to-use, excellent first blog tool. 
Blogs can be created using wizards and templates. 
New entries are easy to create, update and use. Google 
owns Blogger. Many of their sites are branded with 
Blogspot.com which is a blogging company purchased 
by Google and combined with blogger. Blogger offers 
tools for monetizing a blog. 



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Blogging for Business 



Software 


Website 


Comments 








http://www.tumblr.com/ 


Tumblr is a wildly popular blog site that has grown 
into one of the top destinations on the web. Tumblr 
combines social media features with rich media 
(e.g. video, audio, photography) and supports the 
development of individual blogs. Many users view 
Tumblr as a replacement for Facebook. 




tumblr. 










■ ■■ ■ 

xanga 


http://www.xanqa.com/ 


Xanga combines social media and blogging. Similar 
in approach to Tumblr, it focuses on personal 
interests and the formation of communities around 
interest areas. It has a variety of blogging features 
and offers themes, ideas, and other support for blog 
construction. 


[ yn 


http://www.weeblv.com/ 


Weebly is both a website and blog builder. It offers free 
hosting and provides mechanisms to easily change 
themes and designs. Weebly is great for starters and is 
somewhat limited in its overall flexibility. 



Table 2.3 Free Third-Party Hosted Blog Platforms 



•• 



Do you have to be a banker to 
work in investment banking? 



Deutsche Ba 
db.com/care 




Agile minds value ideas as well as experience 



Global Graduate Programs 

Ours is a complex, fast-moving, global business. There's no time for traditional 
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Blogging for Business 



2.2.3 Other Blog Hosting Options 

Another option used by many small businesses and startup companies is to find a general hosting company 
that offers instant blogging installations for a low cost. These companies often bundle the domain name 
registration into a package so an organization can get its desired name as a URL together with a set of 
blog development tools and support for a set yearly fee. These types of systems provide fast support and 
make it possible for new companies to establish a blog with very little effort. Often, WordPress, Weebly 
or other blog platforms are incorporated into the host's website. Table 2.4 provides several examples of 
companies offering these low cost services. 



Software 


Website 


Comments 




http://squarespace.com/ 


Squarespace offers blogging software but also supports 
general website development. It is often used by 
businesses wishing to offer sites and blogs featuring high- 
end photography and artistic expressions. Blogs can be 
constructed easily with existing themes and other features. 
Squarespace offers social media integration, migration 
tools to bring blog content from Blogger, WordPress, 
MovableType, and TypePad. It also supports data forms and 
other business features. 




P SQUARESPACE 










http://www.tvpepad.com/ 


TypePad offers free blogging space but positions that as a 
'trial blog'. It provides a cost structure that increases with 
the addition of features. TypePad focuses on business blogs 
and offers monetization tools together with professional 
themes and other tools specific to business. 


E 


TypePad 












http://dreamhost.com 


This web hosting company has a reputation as being 
very customer friendly and offers top levels of support. 
Dreamhost is more than a blog host. They also provide 
general hosting services and can provide solutions to host 
all aspects of an organizations web presence. They focus on 
businesses. 


RjDreamHost 

Imagine the Web, Your Way 






Domains, websites &. 
&t&yjW*fi m ii between! ■ 




http://www.qodaddv.com 


GoDaddy, known for its racy television advertisements 
in the U.S., offers an economy WordPress hosting plan 
for a low price. This combined with their domain name 
registration strengths make them worth reviewing for a 
potential blog host. 








iPage 

HOSTING SINCE 1998 


http://www.ipaqe.com 


I use i Page's WordPress installation and easy-to-use control 
panel to manage my blog themes and blog content. iPage 
offers full website editing tools, Weebly, and WordPress 
with easy-to-use installation wizards. 



Table 2.4 Other Blog Hosting Options 



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2.3 Building a Blog 

Building a blog can be relatively straight forward. In order to illustrate the process, two blogging 
implementations will be described. The first is based on Blogger from Google and the second on 
WordPress. 

2.3.1 Blogger Example 

Blogger was launched in 1999 by Pyra Labs as one of the first free blog websites (Blogger, 2012). Many 
of today's blogging conventions were developed, popularized and standardized by Pyra Labs. In 2003, 
Google bought Blogger and began adding features. Among these was integration with Picasa to enable 
users to post photos. Additional improvements have given Blogger a wide range of widgets that provide 
easy ways to post multimedia material and import RSS feeds from other sites. Innovative improvements 
that were originally unique to Blogger are now standards in all blogging systems (McHaney, 2011, 
p. 102-3). Blogger can be found at http://www.blogger.com (see Figure 2.6). 



Google 



[3 Blogger 

Create a blog. It's free. 




Beautiful, customizable templates and layouts. Try the template 
designer 



£> 



Up to the minute stats Make money with Adsense Explore Blogs of Note 



Want to learn more? Take a quick tour, watch a video tutorial or read Blogger Buzz. 



Figure 2.6 Blogger Website 

Creating a blog with Blogger is fun and easy. In order to start, a user needs a Google ID. If you already 
have one (e.g. a Gmail account), you don't need to take this step and can just use your existing Google 
UserlD. Otherwise, go to gmail.com and press on the 'sign up for Gmail' link (See Figure 2.7). Follow 
the instructions to obtain your account. Your Google ID can be used for any Google services including 
Blogger. 



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Web 2.0 and Social Media for Business 



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Google 



Gmail 

^Google approach to email. 

t on the idea that email can be more intuitive, efficient, and useful. And maybe even fun. After 



Over 7675^^394 megabytes (and counting) of free storage. 




<S> 
1 



Less spam 

Keep unwanted 



Mobile access 

Get Gmail on your mobile phone. I 



About Gmail New features] Switch to Gmai If Create 




New! Get your own domain with Google Apps for Business 

Love Gmail, but looking for a more custom email address for your business? 

Get branded email, calendar, and online docs @your_company.com. Leam more » 



Figure 2.7 Blogger Website 

Visit Blogger.com. Use your Gmail User ID to login. The first time, you will enter a wizard that will 
prompt you for information (See Figure 2.8). 




i'JOSETf- 



i Sign up for Blogger 



Google 

Accounts t-J 



Ones you complete this process, you'll be able to log in to Blogger using your Google account email 
and password. 



Email address 


RWMc H an eyljpgm ail.com 


Use a different account 


Your name 


Roger McHaney 










Display name 


ProfRogerMc 


The name used to sign your 
btog posts. 


Email notifications 


!_! Send me feature announcements, advice, and other 
information to help me gel the most out of my blot*. 










Gender 


* 





Acceptance of Terms □ | accept the Terms of Service 



Indicate that yoj have read 
and understand Blogger*s 
Terms of Service 



Figure 2.8 Wizard Visible During First Blogger Website Visit 



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After supplying the requested information and in future visits, you will arrive at the Blogger Dashboard 
which lists blogs associated with your ID and provides controls for customizing these blogs. Initially 
you will not have any blogs listed. You will see two categories: blogs you own and blog subscriptions in 
your reading list (See Figure 2.9). 



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blogs 








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Get a pulse fur ihe posts your readers like most with the +i counter 

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Today we're heeipy 1a mtrockice me 1 1 counts' which allows you 1a quietly scan your dashboard to set whieti costs are 
most papular un your blog C*:h 1 me a reader clicks the +1 SUiton nna post a +1 gets added lothat posts counter and 
lh*ir pfofila photo and iunu will appear 

Mttnaol +2 * ° 
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Figure 2.9 Blogger User Website 



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top-performing 

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* Figures taken from London Business School's Masters in Management 2010 employment report 



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Pressing the c New Blog' button will start a wizard that takes you through the blog creation process. Figure 
2.10 provides a look at the wizard that will prompt you through the process. The first steps include naming 
your blog and specifying a template for its layout. Templates are prebuilt looks and feels for your blog. 



Blags List > i v blog 

Title 



Address 



Template 



Professor Roger McHaney Blog 



ProfRogerMc 
This blog address is available. 



! 




~*«g ■.. i MB r J 



Dynamic Views Simple 



Picture Window 




IS?'- 



Awesome Inc 



Watermark 



Ethereal 



You can browse many more templates and customise your blog later. 



Create blog] 



x 



Cancel 



Figure 2.10 New Blog Wizard 



The new blog will be visible in your Blogger account under the name just created (See Figure 2.11). 

._ BLogger 



|J ProfRogerMc's blogs 






New Blog 



Professor Roger McHaney Blog 

Your Blog has been created! Start posting | Dismiss 

Figure 2.1 1 New Blog Wizard 



View blog 



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You will see several options now available. These include 'Start Posting which will allow the addition 
of written content. A nearby pencil icon also will permit new blog posts to be added. Changes can be 
made to the blogs format, layout and content icons using the drop down box shown in Figure 2.12. 



Professor Roger McHaney Blog |§j 


View blog 


No posts. Start blogging! 


Overview 
Posts 




All blogs 


Pages 

Comments 

Stats 








Add blogs to follow in your Reading List 

You are not currently following any blogs. Use the "Add" button to enter blogs that you'd like 


heading List. 


Learn more 


Earnings 
Layout 




The latest from Blogger Buzz 


Template 




Get a pulse for the posts your readers like most with the +1 count 




Settings 
1 week ago by A Googler 







Figure 2.12 Options for Updates, Layout, Templates and More 

You already have a basic blog constructed at this point. However, unless you added a post, there will be 
no articles in your blog yet. To transform your blog from a website into a dynamic community for your 
business, several more additions should be made. The easiest way to get to these is by pressing 'Layout' 
from the dropdown menu shown in Figure 2.12. Figure 2.13 shows the next screen you will see. 





_ Favicon 

LJ Edit 




Navbar 

Edit 










Professor Roger McHaney Bio... 

Edit 


Add a Gadget 
Blog Posts 

Edit 
Add a Gadget 

Add a Gadget 




Add a Gadget 
Followers 


Blog Archive 

Ed* 


About Me 

Edrt 

Add a Gadget 


Attribution 

Edit 







Figure 2.13 Blogger Layout Screen 



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Web 2.0 and Social Media for Business 



Blogging for Business 



Each area on the layout provides a variety of customization choices. For instance, by selecting edit' under 
Navbar, a user can choose from a set of choices displayed in Figure 2.14. 



I Blogger :: Professor Roger McHaney Blog :: Configure Navbar - Mozilla Firefox 



www.blogger.com rearrange?blogID=90657691809887282015iaction=editWidget&5ectionId=n ' 



Navbar Configuration 



.;, Blue 




■ \ ■ Tan 


Q Follow Share Next Blog» 
O Black 


^r ^b 


<Q Sitver 


11 QJ Follow Share Next Blog» 
o Transparent Light 


Follow Share Next Blog» 


. ", Transparent Dark 


E 1 1 









Figure 2.14 Navbar Configuration Choices 















r 
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OF OPPORTUNI" 


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2CCO* 






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trainees@ecco.com 


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Web 2.0 and Social Media for Business 



Blogging for Business 



If blogger is being used as a business website, other options should be customized. Table 2.5 provides a 
summary of several important areas to consider. 



Area 



Customization Comments 



Favicon 



Edit 



Favicon stands for favorites icon and is used as small graphic representation 
for a website. Businesses can create custom favicons that will display in their 
visitors' browser URL bar. The graphic orange 'B' shown in conjunction with 
Blogger's website is their favicon. Websites such as: http://www.favicon.co.uk/ 
help with the creation of custom favicons. 



Followers 



Edit 



The followers option is on by default. This item permits users to 'join' the blog 
and become members with Google Friend Connect. These options are limited 
in this portion of Blogger because many users might prefer to interact with a 
blog through Facebook or in other ways. If you 'uncheck' followers, this block 
will not be displayed on the blog. 



Followers 






c> 


with Go-ogle Friend Connect 

There are no members yet 
Be the first! 


Already a. member? Sign in 



Blog Archive 



Edit 



Blog archive provides options for displaying previous posts and how you want 
these to be listed. 



About Me 



McHaney Bio... 



Edit 



The 'About Me' and 'Bio' options provide space for information about yourself 
or your business to be posted. 



Edit 



Attribution 



Edit 



Attribution allows the user to specify whether the blog contents are 
copyrighted or licensed in other ways for republication and reuse. Many blogs 
use the Creative Commons copyright system to specify reuse rules for original 
material. See http://CreativeCommons.org for more information. 



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Web 2.0 and Social Media for Business 



Blogging for Business 



Area 



Customization Comments 



Blog Posts 



Edit 



The blog posts option gives the blog creator the ability to customize how the 
posts are presented and to specify other options. Among these are: 



Post Page Options 




21 Friday, 3 February 2012 Q| 




H Posted by ProfRo^erMc 








H at 


01:28 










13 5 comments 








El Links to this post 








13 Labels: photos, holidays 




13 Show Quick Editing & 




W Reactions: funny interesting | cqqL | Edit 


13 Show Email Post Links SI 

3 Show Share Buttons |M|Q| . |E |"+7 




3 Location: New York, New York 


■ USA 


Show Ads Between Posts Learn more 
You must set up an AdSense account befo 


re you can configure inline ads. 



These items can be arranged on the blog and other post information is 
managed in this area. 



Add a Gadget 



Blogger provides the ability to insert gadgets in various locations on a blog. 
Gadgets are items that enable interaction with the viewers and other features. 
Many blog environments call these 'widgets' instead of gadgets. Widgets and 
gadgets are also similar to 'apps' on mobile devices or Facebook. 



Table 2.5 Areas in the Blogger Configuration Process 

Step 5: Add Gadgets 

A Blogger-based business blog can become a truly powerful tool for communicating with customers, 
prospects, and the general public if an appropriate set of gadgets' are configured. Gadgets provide a set 
of tools that allow a blog to achieve its goals. Blogger continues to add gadgets and to enable third-party 
developers to create gadgets. At the time that this textbook was written, Blogger offered 1 175 third-party 
gadgets to supplement the primary 25 or so it supports. Table 2.6 provides a sample of several gadgets 
that should be considered for a business blog. Remember, each business blog will be unique and it is 
important to select the gadgets best suited to meet the goals for a specific business. eHow (2012) provides 
information about adding RSS Feeds to Blogger at: http://www.ehow.com/how 2050575 add-rss-feed- 
blogger.html . 



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Web 2.0 and Social Media for Business 



Blogging for Business 



Gadget 


Purpose 








Provides a venue for posting events sponsored by a business or that might be 
important to your readers 




My Event 










Friends coming 














Provides a link to a set of photos posted on Flickr. Section 1.2.3 of this book 
describes how content sharing tools like Flickr can be used by a business to 
create stronger ties to its customers and the public. 




flickr 

Phtostrcawt 
















'Share It' allows users to share your business blog posts with social networks 
and a variety of popular websites. 












Provides a method for Twitter messages (Tweets) sent out by your business 
to be shared on the blog. Section 7.1 describes the importance and power of 
using a tool like Twitter for business. 




1 updates 














Similar to 'Share It', AddThis allows blog content to be shared with a variety of 
social media. Depending on your business goals and the target area for your 
blog, this might be a better choice. 




OAddThiS' 
















'Polls' is a tool that enables a blog to ask its customers questions and creates 
an interactive opinion collection process. 




■- 




— ^ 


— ~ — 


. ,. __ 












Community answers can become an important business tool that allows 
customers to submit, discuss, and vote on feedback for a product or 
organization. 










JinswerstLi-l 














Social Networker provides links to social media and websites that can provide 
value to a business. 

















Table 2.6 Sample Gadgets to Helpful to Business Blogs 

Prior to configuring and customizing a blog, the site will look similar to what is shown in Figure 2.15. 
After just a short amount of time, the Blogger site can be transformed into a business blog such as Rick 
Sammons Digital Imaging Diaries shown in Figure 2.16. 



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60 



Web 2.0 and Social Media for Business 



Blogging for Business 



Professor Roger McHaney Blog 




FOLLOWERS 


No posts 


with Google Friend Connect 

There are rm members yet. 
Be the first! 

Already a member? Sign in 

ABOUT ME 
ProfRo-gerMc 

View my complete profile ^ 


Home 
Subscribe to: Posts (Atom) 

Simple template. Powered by Blogger. 



Figure 2.1 5 Blog Prior to Configuration 






Stafford 

M9 associates 





Find your next education 




Click here 






bookboon.com/blog/subsites/stafford 






i 






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Web 2.0 and Social Media for Business 



Blogging for Business 



*^£ S-wm V$& 5l^ T*-rf« 



About/Contact 



iPad and i Phone Apps 



Seminars 



Croton Creative 



My Gear 




Photo 

Tours 

and 

Works 

hops 



Florida Events Save on Creative Plug-ins SmugMug Gallery 



Friday, February 3, 2012 

Need a Speaker For an Event? Shoot Me an Email! 



Special All-Day Seminar! 





Get Inspired in Orlando 



Cool Lighting Workshop 




Figure 2.16 Rick Sammon's Configured Blogger-based Business Blog 
From: http://www.ricksammon.info/ 



While Blogger offers a number of powerful features and enables syndication through RSS feeds, it does 
have several limitations. Among these are: 

1) Limits on post and page sizes. It can become difficult to produce large posts, particularly if 
posted on the front page. 

2) Only 20 labels per post can be used. 

3) Blogger permits a capacity of 1 GB for images. However, images can be posted on other sites 
(e.g. Flickr) and linked into the posts. 

4) Blogger does offer a large number of Gadgets but these are limited in comparison to WordPress. 
Many of the Blogger Widgets are targeted at individual hobbyists and not business users. 

5) Blogger's general structure is limited and requires certain formats. The blog description allows 
only up to a maximum of 500 characters. The number and look/feel of themes are limited. 

6) The number of standalone pages per blog is limited to ten (This does not mean 10 posts!). 

For these and other reasons, businesses may want to use a more powerful and versatile tool such as 
WordPress for their blogs. 

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62 



Web 2.0 and Social Media for Business Blogging for Business 

2.3.2 WordPress Example 

WordPress is one of the most powerful and widely used blogging tools available (WordPress, 2012). It 
was first released in 2003 by Matt Mullenweg and has grown from simple website enhancement code to 
a powerful content management system (Mullenweg, 2003). WordPress has been downloaded over 65 
million times and is believed to power approximately 15% of the top 1 million websites worldwide. In 
addition to use as a blogging platform, WordPress has become the most popular content management 
system on the web (Roa, 2011). 

WordPress is a free, open source platform based on PHP and MySQL. A large community of supporters 
and users develop enhancements, fix bugs, and contribute ideas for new releases. It offers easy-to-use 
themes and templates that provide solutions for less technical users while at the same time providing 
a framework for technical users to create custom and unique solutions. Among WordPresss features 
are its template system and a plug-in architecture. WordPress is truly an example of Web 2.0 in action 
since it relies on the efforts of many to maintain and enhance its platform. It abides by the Free Software 
Foundations principles shown in Figure 2.17. 




GNU Operating System 



"Free software" is a matter of liberty, not price. Free software is a matter of the users' freedom to run, copy, distribute, 
study, change and improve the software. More precisely, it means that the program's users have the four essential 
freedoms: 

• The freedom to run the program, for any purpose (freedom 0). 

The freedom to study how the program works and change it so it does your computing as you wish (freedom 
1). Access to the source code is a precondition for this. 

• The freedom to redistribute copies so you can help your neighbor (freedom 2). 

The freedom to distribute copies of your modified versions to others (freedom 3). By doing this you can give 
the whole community a chance to benefit from your changes. Access to the source code is a precondition 
for this. 

From: http://www.gnu.org/licenses/ 



Figure 2.17 Open Source Philosophy Used by WordPress 

WordPress is more than a blogging platform. As stated earlier, it is also a content management system 
(CMS) that enables an organization to create, manage, and update a website and all its components such 
as images, posted documents, and widgets. WordPress offers the following immediate advantages when 
used as business blog (See Table 2.8). 



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63 



Web 2.0 and Social Media for Business 



Blogging for Business 



Advantage 


Description 


Search Engine 

Optimization 

(SEO) 


WordPress is so large and widely used that its tags, keywords, and categories have been integrated 
with many search engine systems. WordPress is designed to make it easy for search engines to locate 
and categorize content created with its platform. The business owner only needs to use the provided 
tools and hooks into search engines that are in place and ready to go. This is a huge advantage over 
custom developed websites that need to be syndicated through a service such as LibSyn. 


Content 
Update 


Postings and other content can be easily entered using the WordPress dashboard. A business 
owner does not need to know HTML, XML and other scripting tools. A very rich set of editing and 
formatting tools exist. 


Communities 


WordPress has active and helpful user communities. WordPress communities include those for 
technical support, development support, end-user support and everything in between. In addition, 
numerous books, manuals, and websites exist to provide advice and information about getting the 
most out of WordPress business applications. 


Installation 
Wizards 


WordPress installations are available from WordPress.com and from a wide variety of hosting 
services such as iPage, Bluehost, GoDaddy and others. 


Extensions 


A large number of third-party developers have added a richness to WordPress that includes free 
themes, plug-ins, professional tools, integration with social media systems, and other features. 
Businesses can benefit from free expertise and the ability to extend and expand a website with polls, 
forms, contact pages, ratings plug-ins, comment tools, Twitter tools, Facebook integration, and more. 



Table 2.8 Business Blogging Advantages Offered by WordPress 



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Blogging for Business 



Setting up a WordPress blog is relatively straightforward and can be done in a number of ways. As 
mentioned in Table 2.8, many hosting services provide installation wizards and features that will enable 
a subscriber to setup and use WordPress. It is also possible to develop a blog directly on the WordPress 
website. This example installation will take that approach. Using the WordPress.com website provides 
only a subset of the features offered to those that host their own application or that subscribe to a hosting 
service that provides WordPress. But for illustrative purposes, WordPress.com will work well. To start, 
visit the WordPress website at: http://wordpress.com/ as shown in Figure 2.18. 



] Word Press, com — Get a Free Blog Here 



I 



Login I 



MM WordPress.com 

A better way 
to blog. 



Get started here 



Learn more or sign up now. 



Freshly 
Pressed: 



The zest of 470 ,540 doggers, 
782,962 new posts, 958,119 
comments, & 155,463,478 words 
posted today on '.'VordPress.com. 



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m 



Grocery Shopping With Kids 

Play' 101 

Posts about Parenting ~-> 




Do You Ever Wonder? 
Girl on the Contrary 

Posts about Humor— * 



The VaQey of Death 
Stories from home 

Posts about Photography -» 



Figure 2.18 WordPress.com Website for Starting a New Blog 

Press the 'Get Started Here button to begin the process. You will be prompted to provide information 
about your new blog including its name, whether you want a free site using a WordPress domain name 
or are willing to pay for extra to acquire a custom domain name and other features. Figure 2.19 provides 
a partial view of the registration form. 





Get your own WordPress.com account in seconds 

Fill out this one-step form and you'll be blogging seconds later! 




Blog Address 




Choose an address for your blog_ Don't worry, you 
can change this later. 

If you don't want a blog you can signup for just a 
username. 


.wordpress.com 












Username 




Your username should be a minimum of four 
characters and can only include lowercase letters 
and numbers. 

















Figure 2.19 Registration for WordPress Blog 



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65 



Web 2.0 and Social Media for Business 



Blogging for Business 



After filling out the required information, you will have the choice of getting a basic site for free or 
paying for added features. See Figure 2.20. 



Thinking about upgrading? 

Grab the WordPress Value Bundle and save some cash. 
Free Blog ^ 

Domain Name & Mapping *f 



10GB Space Upgrade 



No Ads 



Custom Design 



VideoPress 



$99 

peryear 



X 
X 
X 
X 
X 
Free 



You agree to the fascinating terms 
of service by submitting this form. 





Upgrade 


- 



Create Blog -* 



Save 40%! 



Figure 2.20 Choose Blog Features and Create 



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66 



Web 2.0 and Social Media for Business 



Blogging for Business 



WordPress will verify the account email address and collect additional information as shown in Figures 
2.21 and 2.22. 



) WordRress.com 



Home Sign Up Features News Support Themes Stats About Us 



Check Your E-mail to Complete Registration 

An e-mail has been sent to mchaneylondon@gmail.com to activate your account. Check your inbox and click the link in 
the message. It should arrive within 30 minutes. If you do not activate your account within two days, you will have to 
sign up again. 

Update Your Profile! 

If you haven't got your activation e-mail why not update your profile while you wait? 







First Name: __ 

Roger 









Last Name: 



About Yourself: 



McHaney 



Professor of Information Systems at Kansas 
State University 



Figure 2.21 Email Verification and Additional Information 



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Web 2.0 and Social Media for Business 



Blogging for Business 



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Thank you for signing up with WordPress.com 

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Figure 2.22 Activate from Email Account 

The blog is now ready for customization and for posts to be added. Figure 2.23 provides a view of the 
screen you will see. 



Your account is now active! 



Your blog at web20forbusiness.wordpress.com is active. You may now login to your blog using your chosen username 
of "web20forbusiness'. Please check your email inboxfor your password and login instructions. If you do not receive an 
email, please check your junk or spam folder. If you still do not receive an email within an hour, you can reset your 
password. 



ON W O RD P RE 5 5 . COM 
Support & Forums 
Free Features 
Premium Add-Ons 
Theme Showcase 
Popular Tags 
Advanced Services 
Developer Resources 



ALSO COOL 

WordPress Apps 

WordPress.org 

WordPress.tv 

VIP Services: Support & Hosting 

Embed Videos on WordPress 

Online Surveys by Surveydaddy 

Matt Mullenweg 




FROM OUR ELO G RearJ more 

Comment Notifications! 
New Themes: Splendio and Suburbia 
Post Videos from Your iPhone or iPad 
New Themes: Currents and Debut 
Import from Tumblr in 3 Easy Steps 



Learn i^ WordPress j 



COM 



About Us ■ Terms of Service ■ Privacy ■ Fallow us on Facebook ■ ©wo repress dotcom an Twitter 



An AUTOM ATTIC Ruckus 



Figure 2.23 Blog Account is Active and Ready for Customization 

After activation, a theme can be selected for the blog. WordPress and its support communities offer 
numerous themes. Press the 'Themes' tab to explore the variety of pre-developed WordPress themes 
that are available (Figure 2.24). 

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68 



Web 2.0 and Social Media for Business 



Blogging for Business 



j WordPress.com 



Home Features News Support Themes Stats About Us Forums 



Theme Showcase 



Welcome to the wonderful world of themes. Here you can browse and search all themes available 
on WordPress.com and discover the one that is just right for your blcg. 



Explore the Themes 



< 



The entire header area in the Fjords theme is now a link that points to your homepage. — Michelle Langston 



Lifestyle 



Math* 



Got lots of magazine-style content and need a stylish frame? 
Lifestyle's a great choice for sites that have a lot to say Choose from 
ten content-friendly soft color schemes, and widgets that support 
everything from video to in-depth articles to great photography. 
Thanks to the power of the Genesis Framework ... 



Check out Lifestyle 



Figure 2.24 Blog Account is Active and Ready for Customization 

Pressing the 'Explore the Themes' button will bring up a selection of nearly 200 themes. Some themes 
are free and others must be purchased. Figures 2.25 and 2.26 show the adoption of the INove theme. 



Neutra -„ - - 




Newsy 

Quick E eta lis 



Neutra 

Quick Details 



INove 

Quick Details 



Read more about INove 



Figure 2.25 INove Theme in 'Explore Themes' 



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Web 2.0 and Social Media for Business 



Blogging for Business 



INove 



Subject: Blog 

Style: Corporate. Light Modem, Tech 



A simple yet very stylish, widget supported., and feature rich theme 



Love This Theme? 

Activate this theme for your site on WorctPress.com 
and start using it now! 




Features 

Two Columns 


* Fixed Width 


Theme Options 


■ Custom Menu 


Right Sidebar 


■ Sticky Post 


Theme Options 


■ Full Width Template 


Custom Background 





See it in action 



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Our 16" most populartheme 
239.958 blogs use the ,'Nove theme 
Launched on August 13, 2009 



Figure 2.26 Press Activate to Adopt the INove Theme 



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Web 2.0 and Social Media for Business 



Blogging for Business 



The theme is activated and this provides a look and feel for the blog. Figure 2.27 provides a view of the 
blog prior to adding custom widgets, titles, or posts. 





1 


web20forbusiness 

Just another WardPress.com site 




ft About 


■ 


MG 


Helo world! 


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™ February 13, 2012 & web20forbusmess ^ 1 comment V Edit 

Welcome to WordPresa.com. After you read this, you should delete and write your own post, 
with a new title above. Or hit Add New on the left (of the admin dashboard) to start a fresh 
post. 

Here are some suggestions for your first post. 

1. You can find new ideas for what to blog about by reading the Daily Post. 

2. Add PressThis to your browser. It creates a new blog post for you about any 
interesting page you read on the web. 

3. Make some changes to this page, and then hit preview on the right. You can always 
preview any post or edit it before you share it to the world. 

I_! Uncategorized 






| [Search 


Recent Posts 

« Hello world! 


Archives 

■ February 2012 


Categories 

■■ Uncategorized 


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* Log out 

* Entries RSS 

* Comments RSS 
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I Blog at WordPress.com. Theme: INove by NeoEase. 

Mid 




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Figure 2.27 Default Blog Appearance after Adopting Theme 



Blog customization can be managed from the WordPress dashboard. A link to the dashboard can be 
found by locating a link either from the panel on the left side or from a dropdown menu attached to 
the blog name. See Figure 2.28 for examples. 




# Posts 
l^j Media 
$ Links 
\£\ Pages 
*p Comments 
|jjl] Feedbacks 
v&,' Polls 
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2. Add PressThis to your bro* 
interesting page you read on 

3. Make some changes to thi 
preview any post or edit it bef 

I | Uncategorized 



Figure 2.28 Navigate to Dashboard to Manage Blog and Add Posts 



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Web 2.0 and Social Media for Business 



Blogging for Business 



The WordPress blog can be customized from the dashboard. New posts can be added, settings can be 
changed, Widgets can be activated, and the appearance can be modified (see Figure 2.29). 



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Figure 2.29 Dashboard for Managing a WordPress Blog 

A blog can be a fundamental component of any business and can provide a mechanism for developing 
a public, identifying face. Chapter 3 of this book will get into more details regarding the creation and 
maintenance of a business blog using WordPress. 

2.4 Conclusions 

This chapter has introduced a class of applications that were among the first to become associated with 
the transition from static web pages to social media and Web 2.0. Blogs have transitioned from online 
journals and bulletin board systems to interactive venues for facilitating communication and messages. 

In recent years businesses increasingly have become aware of these powerful tools and how they can be 
used to create a community of customers, potential clients, and employees. As a result, blogs are now 
standard practice in nearly all Fortune 500 firms as well as many small and medium sized businesses. 

Chapter 2 provided an overview of blogs and gave examples of getting started with Blogger and WordPress. 
Chapter 3 will continue the discussion and provide a detailed look at many features in WordPress that 
can be used in the development and maintenance of a business blog. 

2.5 Bibliography 

Blogger (2012). http://Blogger.com 

eHow (2012). How to Add an RSS Feed on Blogger. eHow.com. 
http://www.ehow.com/how 2050575 add-rss-feed-blogger.html 

McHaney, R.W. (2011). The New Digital Shoreline: How Web 2.0 and Millennial Are Revolutionizing 
Higher Education. Stylus Publishing. 

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72 



Web 2.0 and Social Media for Business 



Blogging for Business 



Mullenweg, M. (2003). "WordPress Now Available." WordPress. 
http://wordpress.org/news/2003/05/ wordpress-now-available/ . 

Nielsen Company (2011a) BlogPulse. http://www.blogpulse.com/ 

Nielsen Company (201 lb). State of Social Media: The Social Media Report. Q3 201 1. http://wwwnielsen. 
com/content/dam/corporate/us/en/reports-downloads/2011-Reports/nielsen-social-media-report.pdf 

Pollitt, C. (201 1). "8 Required Blog Attributes for SEO, SMO & Monetization Optimization Social Media. 
Business2Community" http://www.business2community.com/social-media/8-required-blog-attributes- 
for-seo-smo-monetization-optimization-039592 

Rao, L. (2011). "WordPress Now Powers 22 Percent Of New Active Websites In The U.S." TechCrunch 
(August 19). 
http://techcrunch.com/2011/08/19/wordpress-now-powers-22-percent-of-new-active-websites-in-the-us/. 

WordPress (2012). http://Wordpress.com 

Wortham, J. (2007). "After 10 years of blogs, the future's brighter than ever." Wired. 
http://www.wired.com/entertainment/theweb/news/2007/12/blog anniversary/ 



Need help with your 
dissertation? 



Get in-depth feedback & advice from experts in your 
topic area. Find out what you can do to improve 
the quality of your dissertation! 



Get Help Now 




Go to WWW.helpmyaSSignmeilt.CO.uk for more info 



&H 



Helpmyassignment 



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Web 2.0 and Social Media for Business More Blogging: WordPress Options 

3 More Blogging: WordPress 
Options 

WordPress is a powerful tool that can provide a mechanism for a business to get its message out into 
the world (WordPress, 2012). The posts in blogs are comparable to press releases and allow a business to 
provide news to its stakeholders. The advantage to using blogs over a traditional press release system is 
that the material is accessible to everyone immediately and remains in the original words of the writer. 
Some organizations use their blogs to communicate press releases. Others use them to give a voice to 
various internal entities such as marketing, research and development, production, or the CEO. 

The wide variety of uses for blogs has resulted in the deployment of numerous options and tools. The 
community of users at WordPress has provided many ways of customizing and organizing blogs according 
to a blog producer s goals. Additionally, because of parallels to traditional press releases and a desire to 
promote a wider content distribution, a system for blog syndication has been developed. 

This chapter provides a look at customization options in WordPress and provides details about connecting 
with search engines and readers. The website Which.co.uk provides additional information about this 
process (Which, 2012). 

3.1 Customizing a WordPress Blog 

In Chapter 2 we covered the basics for obtaining a WordPress blog account, starting a blog, and selecting 
a theme. The blog can be further customized with options and features specific to the needs of a business. 
Figure 3.1 provides a view of the 'My Blogs' page visible by default upon logging into WordPress.com. 
This is a 'behind the scenes' page visible only to the blog owner. Other tabs on this page provide tools 
for reading posts written by other WordPress bloggers (e.g. Read Blogs, Freshly Pressed, and Topics). 
Also, a tab for New Post provides links to information about WordPress and its community of users. 
The default tab provides a list of all blogs associated with the current account. Clicking on the desired 
blog provides a view of the website similar to what will be publically visible on a web browser. Figure 3.2 
shows our Web20forBusiness blog example in its current state. We have added a theme but have not yet 
added widgets, pages, posts or any other customization. 



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Web 2.0 and Social Media for Business 



More Blogging: WordPress Options 



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Matt Mullenweg 




WordPress for iOS 



AJjoul Us * Terms of Service ■ Privacy ■ Foiow us on f acs*oalt * (Swortfpressdalcofn on TwBer 



FROM OUR BLOC 

New Theme. Relw-lilLed 
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New Themes Spleudiu and Suburbia 
Post Videus liuin Yuui iPhune ui iPad 
New Themes CmittiiLs and DubuL 



AdAUTQMATTIC Creation 



Figure 3.1 Default My Blogs Page 





wcb20forbusiness 


ft About 


m 


Hdlu worfci! 

" February 13, 2Q12 & webZOtarousiness 'V 1. comment * Edit 

Welcome to WordPress.com. After you read this, yo j should delete and wnte your own post, 
with a new title above. Or hit Add Mew on the left (of the admin dashboard) to start a fresh 
pusL. 

Here are some suggestions for your first post. 

1. You can find new ideas for what to blog about by reading the Daily Post, 

2. Add PressThis to your browser. It creates a new blog post for you about any 
interesting udye yuu redd umUie web. 

3. Make some changes to this page, and then hit preview on the right. You can always 
preview any post or edit it before you chare it to the world. 

Lr.-iaiegciriued 


^ RSS feed 




f Search | 


Recent Posts 

* Hello world 1 


Archives 

■ February 2013 


Categories 

a Uncategorized 


Mete 

■ Sftc Admin 

■ Logout 

• Entries HS5 

• Comments R£S 

• WnrrfPrpss.rnm 




IIB— — 


"Top 



Figure 3.2 Web20forBusiness Blog Prior to Customization 

3.1 .1 Customizing a Theme 

The theme is a good place to begin customization of a WordPress blog. Most themes provide options 
for customization including selection of a header image, font and style choices, and different ways of 
arranging the widgets. Figure 3.3 uses the drop down menu under the current blog name (located in 
the upper left corner of the screen) to move into the dashboard where various customization options 
can be found. 

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web20f o rb u s i n e: : .word press, com 




O Follow 



Short I ink: http://wp.me/2dnHx 
Random Post 
Report as mature 
Theme: INove 



web20forbusiness 



Just another WordPre55.com site 



About 



Hello wo rid! 



™ February 13, 2012 £ web20forbu&ine£s 

Welcome to WordPress.com. After you reac 
with a new title above. Or hit Add New on t 
post. 



Figure 3.3 Navigating to the Dashboard 

Prior to starting customization, I visited 'Themes' and selected 'Connections' because it contains more 
options, including the ability to add a custom header image. After activating it, the new theme is in 
place. See Figure 3.4. 



What do Skype and Spotify have in 
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Manage Themes 







Connections bv Patricia Muller 



A super classy two-column theme with widgets and a customizable header. 



Custom Design Header 



Background 



Browse Themes 

Random | A-Z | Popular | Newest | Premium | Friends ofWP.com 

Figure 3.4 Selected Connections Theme for Customization 

To customize the theme, the 'Theme Options' selection can be found under appearance on the dashboard 
menu (Figure 3.5) or by using the buttons under managing themes' as shown in Figure 3.4. Depending 
on your current WordPress screen, your menu choices might vary and something more similar to Figure 
3.5 might be visible (notice how the Header choice becomes available when using the Connections theme). 









raj Appearance j 


Themes 




% Users 


Widgets 
Menus 




XI Tools 


Background 




[AT] Settings 


^Theme Options^ 




J Collapse menu 


Custom uesign 
Mobile 






iPad 






Theme ItJove with 5 Widgets 



Figure 3.4 Navigating to Theme Options Under Appearance 



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^9 Appearancej 
35 Users 
1U Tools j 


Themes 
Widgets 
Menus 
Header J 


[If] Settings 

1 Collapse menu 


Background 
Custom Design 
Mobile 
iPad 



Figure 3.5 Navigating to Theme Header under Appearance 

Customizing a theme has the direct benefit of making a business site unique. Each theme available to 
WordPress users may have thousands of adopters so adding features that further the business goals of 
a business site is crucial in creating a sense of identity. 

The Connections theme allows a user to customize the blog header image and style. Some themes permit 
this and others do not. Additional theme customization options (depending on the one selected) may 
include: background image, background color, header text, font color, and other style choices. Changing 
the header image is a good way to help create a business identity. In order to create a custom header, select 
the Header page under Appearance as shown in Figure 3.5. Your theme may have pre-installed images. 
If so, one of these can be selected and saved. However, to ensure a truly custom appearance, uploading 
a custom image is a better idea. A custom image can be obtained from a site of open content images 
(such as CreativeCommons.org or from appropriately licensed images at Flickr.com - see section 1.2.2) 
or can be photos taken with a digital camera. 

For instance, Figure 3.6 provides an example of downloading a creative commons licensed photo that 
is available for download and commercial use. It was discovered using the advanced search' option in 
Flickr and the settings shown in Figure 3.7. 



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flickr 



Home The Tour Sign Up Explore Upload 

Photo /All sizes 



License 

Download 

Sizes 



© Some rights reserved by mikiane 



|fAII sizes- of this photo are available for download under a Creative Commons license) 



Square 
(75 x 75} 



Thumbnail 
1 100x75} 



Small 
(2^0 x 160) 



Medium 500 
(500x575) 



Medium 640 
(640x460) 



Large 

(1 024 x 765) 




Figure 3.6 CC Licensed Flickr Photo for Commercial Download 



creative 
commons 



Tip: Find content wtth a- 
Creative Commons license. 
Learn more... 



J Only search within Creative Commons-licensed content 

El Find contentto use commercially 

E2 Find contentto modify, adapt, or build upon 



Figure 3.7 Settings used Advanced Flickr Search for Commercial Download 

A photo can be added to the blog to create a custom header. Figure 3.8 shows a file upload control. It 
was used to find the downloaded image on the local computer and then add it as the blog header image. 



] Custom Header 

Preview 






\ m * web2oforbusiness 

** , Just another WordPress.com site 






■ " y, r 




Upload Image 


\t 




fau can upload a custom header image to be shown at the top of your site instead of the default one. Ontne next screen you will be able 


to crop the image. 




mages of exactly 741 * 142 pixels will be used as-is. 




Choose an image from your computer: 




C:\Users\mchsney\Doi | Browse... | Upload 





Figure 3.8 Uploading a Photo for a Custom Header 

Since the uploaded image is larger than the header size, WordPress provides a tool to crop it directly in 
the web interface page. After selecting the desired portion, clicking Crop Header will ensure that the 
selected part is displayed on the blog (See Figure 3.9). 



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] Crop Header Image 






Choose the part ofthe image you want to use as your header. 










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Figure 3.9 Cropping the Photo to Fit the Header Size 




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After cropping the image, the blog will use the image as the header. See Figure 3.10. 



Custom Header 



Header updated. Visit your site to see how it looks. 



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Upload Image 



Uploaded Images 



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Images of exactly 741 * 142 pixels will be used as-is. 

Choose an image from your computer 



upload 



You can choose one of your previously uploaded headers, or show a random one. 



Figure 3.10 Custom Header Selected 

Notice that the title of the blog is barely readable in the upper right corner of the header. The default, 
free version of WordPress does not provide many tools for fixing this problem. Headers can be edited 
in more ways if your business is using a premium tool set or using third-party installations. Alternately, 
if the image being used is one shade of color, a complementary font color can be selected to make the 
title more visible (see Figure 3.11). However, if the image is multicolored, it may be difficult to select a 
single font color that works. In this case, it may be better to edit the image outside of WordPress prior to 
loading it. Figure 3.12 demonstrates using MS-Paint (a default accessory with MS-Windows) for adding 
text to the photo. Any photo editor can be used to do this. In order to get the title looking as desired, 
several attempts might be necessary. Figure 3.13 provides a view of the edited image. 



Display Text 



Text Color 



Reset Text Color 



Save Changes 



• "■ No «.!») Yes 



#020421 



Select a Color 




text. You will not be able to restore any custom izations. 



Figure 3.1 1 Choose the Header Image Color 



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i 2863053124_eall8f723d_c- Paint 



D 



rimp View 



£] Resize 
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Figure 3.12 Editing Image Outside of WordPress Prior to Reloading 

After getting the header loaded, the 'Display Text' option is disabled. This will stop WordPress from 
overlaying text and will only show the text that was added in the image editor. The 'Display Text' option 
can be seen in Figure 3.11. 

Figure 3.13 shows the newly edited header displayed on the blog. 



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Hello world! 

Posted by web20forbusiness under Uncategorized (edit this) 
1 Comment 

Welcome to Wtff iPreH.com. After you read this, you should delete and write your own 
post, with a new title above. Or hit Add New on the left (of the admin dashboard) to start 
c fresh ?c=i 

Here are some suggestions for your first post. 

i . You can find new ideas for what to blog about by reading the Daily Post. 

2. Add PressTMs to your browser. It creates a new blog post for you about any 
interesting page you read on the web. 

3. Make same changes 10 this page^ and then hit preview on the right. You can 
always preview any post or edit it before you share it to the world. 



Recent Posts 

$■ Hello world! 



Archives 

S> February 2012 

Categories 

S> Uncategorized 

Meta 

t> Site Admin 
2> Loe out 
» Entries RSS 
£■ Comments RSS 
£ Ward Press, com 



ffleg at WordPress.com. — Tfierne: Connections by www.vam1amf3t.com. 



Figure 3.13 New Image as Header 



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3.1.2 Customizing Background 

Customizing the blogs background is another method that can be used to individualize its appearance. 
Navigating to Background under Appearance in the Dashboard provides a couple options. First, an image 
can be uploaded and used as the background. The image has a variety of settings that permit it to be either 
tiled or displayed according to particular criteria. A second way to customize page background is by selecting 
a hex color value for a solid background. The color can be selected by navigating to Select a Color which 
opens a color wheel with a large number of choices. Be sure to click on 'Save Changes' when complete. 
Figure 3.14 shows the selection of a background image and Figure 3.15 shows a background color choice. 



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Figure 3.15 Selecting a Color as a Blog Page Background 



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3.2 General Settings 

WordPress blogs allow a number of general settings to be changed including site title, tag line (the 
subheading found under the title), language, time zone, date format and so on. To access these settings, 
navigate from the Dashboard to 'Settings' and 'General' as shown on Figure 3.16. 



.*,»;/ Ratings 


1 




^_ General ^ 


lp Appearance 


Writing 


-ft Users 


Reading 


T J Tools 


Discussion 
Media 


|W) Settings 


Privacy 


* Collapse menu 


Sharing 




Polls a Ratings 




Domains 




Email Post Changes 




Text Messaging 




OpenID 




Web-hooks 



Figure 3.16 WordPress General Settings 



For the example blog, changes were made to the title and tag line. Figure 3.17 illustrates. 



Tf| General Settings 



Site Title 
Tagline 
E-mail Address 



Web 2.0 for Business 



Learning Blogs 



fn a few words, explain what this site is about 



mchaneylondon@gmail.com This address is used for admin purposes, if you change this we will 

send you an e-mail at your new address to confirm it. The new address wifl not become active until confirmed. 



UTC time is 2012-02-19 1B1&2131 



Choose a city in the same Umezone as you. 

Figure 3.1 7 Changes to Site Title and Tagline 



Another useful feature on this page is the blog picture/icon setting. An image that represents a blog can 
be uploaded here to provide an identity online. WordPress permits a user to upload an image that will 
be cropped and resized for future use. Figure 3.18 provides an example of the process. WordPress refers 
to the created image as a blavatar (blog avatar). 



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Blog Picture / Icon 



Upload a picture rjp&g orpng)to be used as your 
blog image across WordPress.com. We will let you 
crop it after you upload. 



C:\U5ers\mchaney.DQi 



Upload Image 3 



Browse.. 



Crop uploaded image 



Choose the part of the image you want to use as your avatar. 




Crop Image 2 



All done! 




Web 2.0 



W*2J 



Your bl avatar image has been uploaded andyou should start seeing itappeararoundWordPress.com soon! 



Figure 3.18 Creating a Blavatar 



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3.3 Using Widgets 

The power of WordPress for Hogging becomes more apparent when widgets are incorporated into a 
business website. Widgets are small add-ons that can be used to interact with other applications and 
provide features that help build an audience for a blog. Widgets can be used to show recent Tweets, 
provide Flickr pictures, show Facebook wall entries, link to articles, and for many other things. Widgets 
are often provided by third-party developers. To select Widgets for a business blog, navigate to Widgets 
under Appearance on the Dashboard. 

A wide variety of Widgets will be available in the page that appears (See Figure 3.19). The desired Widgets 
can be added to the blog by dragging it to the area of your choice, generally displayed on the right side of 
the screen. Different areas are available for Widgets depending on the current theme. Typically, Widgets 
can be placed on a sidebar or footer area. 



ta Widgets 



Saccn Options ' Holi 



Available Widgets 
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Authors 
Auttiors 



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BlogClata 



Author Grid 

snow a old or autnor avatar imaees 



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A calendar of your site's posls 



A lisl or dropdown of categories 



Custom Menu 

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menus as a widget 



Category Cloud 

Category Cloud 



face book Like Box 



Display a FaueUuuX Ul«i Bui lu uurined 
visitors to your Face booh Page 



Hinttr 
Flickr 



l-nlHiw Hlog 



Add an amaii signup form to allow people 
to follow your clog 



[innHraads 

Display your books from Goodreads 



insert a Gravatar image 



Image: 

Display an image in your sidebar 



Links 

Vour blog roll 



Recent Posts 



Figure 3.19 Available Widgets 

A selected Widget usually will require configuration. Clicking the down arrow beside the Widget's 
name will cause a configuration dialog box to appear. Figure 3.20 shows a Twitter Widget that has been 
dragged into the sidebar area. It's down arrow reveals settings that enable its configuration. Be sure to 
click Save after customization. 



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Sidebar 



Twitter 




Title: 






Roger McHaney 




Twitter usemame: (?) 
mchaney@ksu.edu 


Maximum number of Tweets to show: 
5 - 

gHide replies 

Vj Hide Tweets pushed by Publicize 

^Include retweets 

2 Display Follow Button 

Text to display between Tweet and 
timestamp: 




Delete | Close ■ - ] 





Search 



Recent Posts 



Figure 3.20 Configuring Twitter Widget in Sidebar Area 

The current theme being used already had several Widgets in place including Search, Archive, and Recent 
Posts. A tag cloud Widget was also added by dragging it to the sidebar. Since no posts have been added to 
the blog, nothing will be visible here yet. Figure 3.21 shows the blogs current appearance. The Widgets 
bring the blog to life and add a dynamic, interesting interface for the readers. Additional Widgets can 
also be added depending on the goals for the blog. 



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aiy Hello world 

Pasted by webZQforbusiness under Uncategorized (edit this) 
1 Comment 



Welcome to WordFress.ojm- After you read this, you should delete and write your own 
postj with a new title above. Or hit Add New on the left frrf the adn in dashboard) to start 
a fresh post. 

Here are some suggestions for your first post. 

i . You can find new ideas for what to blog about by reading th e Daily Post. 

2 . Add FressThis to your browser. It creates a new blog post for you about any 
interesting page you read on the web. 

3 . Make some changes to this page, and then hit preview on the right. You can 
always preview any post or edit it before you share it to the world. 



Digital Business. 

RogeT McHaney 

£■ Free Higher Education 
with Udacity: http://fc.ca 

■'psQWakqL 2 weeks as a 

> SQPA: Not Far Enough™ 
Stop Subway Whistlers 
Too!: http:^' t.co 
■'IrBRcvgK 1 month ago 

S> DigitalStoryteUing:What'sl 
tAH About? http:m.ca 
-FrTqelTd 1 month ago 

£■ Human Google Entry: 
http:>/t.co/DfHmqHhW 
1 month ago 

£■ Getting adapted to life in 
London. Will be updating 
Digital Shoreline blog 
soon. I month ago 

j#- Follow @mchariey 



Figure 3.21 Blog Current Appearance 



SIMPLY CLEVER 



SKODA 




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3.4 Blog Posts 

In order to get a better feel for the blog s overall look, it is time to add a couple posts. To do this, navigate 
to 'New' and 'Post' as shown in Figure 3.22. 




Hello world! 

Posted by web2.0farbu5ines.5 under Un categorized (edit this) 
1 Comment 



Welcome to WbrdFress.couL After you read this, you should delete and write yt 
post, with a new title above. Or hit Add yew on the left ([of the admin dashboar 



Figure 3.22 Adding a Post to the Blog 

The text for a new blog entry is added as shown in Figure 3.23. Notice that media such as images or 
video, polls, or forms can be added to the entry. The circled selections show where these can be added. 
This image will make the entry more interesting (Figure 3.24). 



$> Add New Post 



What Are Blogs 



P e mi a 1 1 n k : http :// vve S 2 Of o rs u s i n e s s wo rd p re s s . co m/2 1 2/02/2 Q/wh at-are-bl o gs.' Edit 




Visual HTML 



\ & M ■ 



Blogs were among the first applications to become associated "with the transition from static web pages to social media. In early forms, blogs were 
most commonly used as online journals and had evolved from Usenet, bulletin board systems, and moderated newsgroups. In themid-iggo's more 
online journals began to appear. These journals were soon knows as weblogs. Eventually, this word eventually was shortened to : blog : by Jorn Barger. 

In their original form, weblogs were not collaborative technologies. Instead, they gave an individual voice to a person wishing to place their thoughts 
and opinions into an unedited public space. This one-to-many communication tool soon was updated to allow readers to post comments and provide 
feedback. Since that time, the blog has become a place where material can be synthesized, mashed, and commented upon. Likes and dislikes can be 
noted. Video, audio, images and other media can be incorporated into blog entries. A variety of blogging tools, websites, and services have emerged 
in support. As of Feb-20ti, the Mel sen Company reported that over 156 million blogs existed on the web|and that next to Facet 00k, more minutes 
were spend by user web users on the website Blogger.com than any other site. 



Figure 3.23 Entering Blog Text 



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Alignment 
Size 



Filename: web21.png 
File- type: image/png 
Upload date; February 20. 20 1 2 
Dimensions: 611 * 535 



* Web 2.0 



Ait text for the image, e.g. "The Mona Lisa" 



http://web20forbusiness.files.wordpress.com/201 2/Q2/web21 .png 

None File URL Attachment Post URL 

Enter a link URL or click above for presets. 

© ■ None O ^= Left © -S Center ® =? Right 

# Thumbnail (150 * if3-fj- 
O Med turn (300*262) 
Large 

■!■ Full Site (510*446) 



Insert into Post Delete 



Figure 3.24 Adding an Image to Blog Post 

Additional editing was done to the post to make the appearance more professional. Then a category and 
several tags were added to make the post easier for readers to find and to help index the material. The 
tag cloud widget also will have content now. Figure 3.25 illustrates adding a category and tags. Upon 
completing, the 'Preview' button was pressed. After inspecting and making any needed changes, the blog 
post can be 'Published' (see Figure 3.26). 



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More Blogging: WordPress Options 



Categories 

All Categories Most Used 
H Un categorized 



+ Add New Category 

Business 

— Parent Category - 



^ 



i Add New Category 



Tags 



s, history, Blogger, Social Media f Add Jl 



Separate tags with commas 
Choose from the most usedtaqs 



Figure 3.25 Adding a Category and Tags 



Publish 


Save Draft 
Status: Draft Edit 






Preview 


Visibility: Public Edit 


O Publish immediately Edit 


Move to Trash j 






Publish 





Figure 3.26 Preview and then Publish the Entry when Complete 



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More Blogging: WordPress Options 



A second post was also added together with a category and tags. The sample post that is loaded by 
WordPress to all blogs (called 'Hello World') should be removed from the blog. To do this, navigate to 
'Posts' and 'All' and select the sample post (See Figure 3.27). Select 'Move to Trash' and it will be deleted. 
The blog begins to take shape as shown in Figure 3.28. 





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Figure 3.27 Delete the Sample 'Hello World' Post 




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Web 2.0 and Social Media for Business 



More Blogging: WordPress Options 




What is Web a. o 

Posted by webZOfarbusiness under Web 2.0 | Tags: Internet, Social 
Media, Web 2.0 | (edit this) 
Leave a Comment 

The term, Web a.o, is used to describe a fundamental social way of using Internet 
technologies. As stated earlier, Web 2.0 doesnt refer to a technical update of underlying 
software or hardware but rather changes in the way ihe Web is being used and created 
by businesses, universities and society. W T eb 2.0 can be viewed as five major, 
interrelated components: (f) social computing, fit) social media, {3) filtering and 
recommendations, (4) content sharing, and (_$) W T eb applications. 



What Are Blogs 

Posted by web20forbusiness under Business | Tags: blog r Elogger, 
business, history, Social Media, Web 2.0 | (edit this) 
Leave a Comment 



V 



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Blogs were among the first 
applications to become associated 
with the transition from static 



web pages to social media. In 



Digital Business 

btog Btogger business history 
internet Joels! 

Media Web 
2.0 

Roger Mclaney 

3> Free Higher Education 
with Udacity: http:Zvt.co 
' psQWakqL 2 weeks ago 

S> 50 PA: Not Far Enough?!? 
Stop Subway Whistlers 
Too!: http:/'t.co 
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2> Digita£torytelling:What'sl 
tAlL About? http:.' "t.co 
■FrTqelTd 1 month ago 

£■ Human Google Entry: 
http:/.'"t.co.'DfHmqHhW 
1 month ago 

£■ Getting adapted to life in 
London. Will be updating 



Figure 3.28 Blog Appearance with 2 Posts Added 

3.5 Adding Mobile and iPad Options 

WordPress.com provides tools for customizing a blog to run on both mobile devices and iPads. The blog 
owner can specify a mobile theme to display when visitors bring up the site using a mobile device or 
an iPad. Figures 3.29 and 3.30 provide examples of configuring the blog to display different images that 
are better suited to small screens. The mobile and iPad versions of the blog can be disabled if desired. 
They can be found under Appearance on the WordPress Dashboard. 

The iPad configuration permits the addition of a cover screen that can be added to provide a front 
screen. A checkbox under the bnswip option must be checked and then an image from a blog post can 
be used or a special image can be uploaded to the site. The onswip image is similar to a book cover and 
provides an identity for the blog. 



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Web 2.0 and Social Media for Business 



More Blogging: WordPress Options 



Mobile Options 



Mobile Theme 



Enable mobile theme 



Mobile Apps 

Take WordPress with you. 



□ 



(* Vies O No 



Enable excerpts on front page and @ Yes © No 

on archive pages (select "No" to 
show full posts) 



Update 



)0D 



g 



We have apps for iOS fiPhone. iFad. iFodTouch) . Android . BlackBerrv . Windows Phone , and more ! 



Figure 3.29 Configuring WordPress Blog for Mobile Apps 



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Web 2.0 and Social Media for Business 



More Blogging: WordPress Options 



Onswipe iPad Settings 



Onswipe displays a beautiful app-like experience to visitors browsing with an iPad. 
[7] Display a special theme for iPad users 



Cover Display 

Cover Logo 

For best results use a 

20 G*20Qpx transparent PNG 



Launch Screen Image 

Readers can addyEJursitetn 
their iPad's home screen for 
quick access from an 
app-like icon. 

The launch screen image is 
briefly displayed after your 
site is opened from an iPad 
home screen icon, before 
the cover image appears. 

Use a PNG exactly 
763*1 0Q4px 



Use the launch screen image |V| 



Browse... 









[C:\Users\m cha n ey\Doi 


Browse... 









Display Font 



Baskerville 



Sample Text 



The quick brown fox jumps 
over the lazy dog 



Accent Color 



Figure 3.30 Configuring WordPress Blog for an iPad 

3.6 Managing Pages 

In addition to posts, WordPress permits a blog to have multiple pages. Pages are different sections of the 
blog website and may contain information about the business, its location, its mission and so forth. The 
blog posts reside on a page as well (although this page is not listed under pages!). From the Wordpress. 
com Dashboard, the 'Pages' link brings up a list of the website's current pages. By default, WordPress 
creates an 'About' page. A list of all pages is shown between two 'title' bars (See Figure 3.31). Pages can 
be used to create a more traditional website using WordPress.com as a content management system. 

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96 



Web 2.0 and Social Media for Business 



More Blogging: WordPress Options 



*Sa Web 2.0 for Business ©Follow 



(5} Dashboard 
^ Store 

£ Posts 
l^jj Media 
@jr Links 



[B Pages 



All Pages 

Add New 

W Comments 
SI Feedbacks 



p| Pages 



Add New 



AU ' 1 | Published [1) 
Bulk Actions [V] Apply Show all dates 

□ Title 

Q About 

Edit | Quick Edit | Trash | View 

□ Title 



Filter 



Bulk Actions [V] Apply 



Figure 3.31 Pages on Blog Website 

The About page should be edited because it currently contains default text. Click on Edit and then change 
the content to represent the current business blog. Figure 3.32 illustrates. 




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Web 2.0 and Social Media for Business 



More Blogging: WordPress Options 






Edit Page ^n™ 



About 








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this blog was developed to illustrate the use of blogfor businesses. Itis meant to accompany die Weba.o for Business textbook by Roger 
y cHaney published by Ventus Publishing and BookBooii. 



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Figure 3.32 Editing a Page on WordPress.com 

Additional pages can be added to the blog website as needed by pressing on Add New under Pages on 
the Dashboard. Often, business blogs provide contact information and other details to help customers 
and potential clients connect more easily. 

3.7 Connecting with Search Engines 

Ultimately in order for a business blog to become successful, potential customers, clients, and others 
must discover it and continue to return as regular readers. Having social media, news services, and other 
re-broadcasters pick up your blog feeds is also desirable. 

Many methods for publicizing a blog exist. The first step for a business blog is to make the site discoverable 
on search engines and social media websites. Open the Privacy page on the Dashboard under Settings. 
By default it is set to permit indexing by search engines and be viewable to the general public. In certain 
cases, a business may wish to make their blog private and use it internally with invited viewers only or 
keep it private until the blog has been fully developed. Figure 3.33 shows the privacy settings. 



If Privacy Settings 



Site Visibility 



*■ .Allow search engines to index this site. 

■"■ Ask search engines not to index this site. 

Note: Netther of these options blocks access to -your site — it is up to search engines to honor your request 

O I would like my site to be private, visible only to users I choose 



Figure 3.33 Privacy Settings on WordPress.com 



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More Blogging: WordPress Options 



After ensuring the blog is publically visible, it is important to register with WordPress's webmaster 
tools. These tools help ensure the posts are indexed by major search engines such as Google, Bing, and 
Yahoo. To register with the search engines navigate to 'Tools' on the Dashboard and scroll midway down 
the page. Figure 3.34 illustrates. 



Webmaster Tools Verification (?) 

Enter your meta key "content" value to verily' your blog with Google Webmaster Tools , Yahoo! Site Explorer , and Bing Webmaster Center 
Google Webmaster Tools 

Example: <meta n ame='. google- s it e- verification ' contEnt= ' dBw5Cvbu^Axi537R^>9fli5LJG^l74Vb6^wHwIRwPSLIK3 , > 
Yahoo! Site Explorer 

Example: <roeta name= , y_key" content='3236[Iee32aabee&4 1 > 
Bing Webmaster Center 




Example: <«neta name^ invalidate. 01" content^ izciZ93B5flB6AECE94EB3A309BWBZE"> 



Figure 3.34 Webmaster Tools 

Notice the three links provided under the 'Website Tools Verification header. The first one links to 
Google's Webmaster tools. As an example, we will register the current blog with this site. Bing and Yahoo! 
Site Explorer work much the same. In order to register a site on each of these, the blog owner will need 
to have an account with a UserlD and Password for the service. Since we created a Google ID with the 
Blogger example in Chapter 2, we will use this ID to access the Google Webmaster Tools. 

After clicking on the 'Google Webmaster Tools' and logging in with a GooglelD and password, the 
screen shown in Figure 3.35 is visible. Press the red Add a Site' button then copy your Blog Address 
(the example one is http://web20forbusiness.wordpress.com ) into the textbox prompt. This tells Google's 
search engine to index your site. 



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Add a site 






Enter the URL of a site you'd like lo manage 


http : Vweb20foffcusi ness.wcrdpress.e Om) 


Example: www.google.com 


Connnuv Carcol j 










Search h«lp Go 





Figure 3.35 Registering with Google Webmaster Tools 



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Web 2.0 and Social Media for Business More Blogging: WordPress Options 

In order to prove that you are the site owner, Google requires that you verify ownership by adding a 
small piece of code to your website. The Google Webmaster Central site will provide several methods 
for accomplishing this. Either a small HTML file can be uploaded to your blog's webserver (See Figure 
3.36) or by pressing the 'Alternate Method' tab, a code can be viewed, copied and added to the WordPress 
site (Figure 3.37). 



Google webmaster central 



Verify ownership 

There are several ways to prove to Google that you own http://web20forbusine5s.wordpress.com/ Select the option that is easiest for you. (More information about site verification ) 

J 



Recommended method Alternate methods 



Recommended: Upload an HTML file to your server 

You can use this option if you are able to upload new files to your site. 



Instructions: 

1. Download this HTML verification file, [google8fa9b4138c0a337d.html] 

2. Upload the file to http-//web2Qforbusiness. wordpress.com/ 

3. Confirm successful upload by visiting http\^veb20forbusiness. word press com/goock3fa'?;4 I33c0a387d.html in your browser. 

4. Click Verify below. 

To stay verified, don't remove the HTML file, even after verification succeeds. 



Verify j [ Not now 



Figure 3.36 Google Webmaster Central with Options for Registering Website 








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® 



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100 




Web 2.0 and Social Media for Business More Blogging: WordPress Options 



Verify ownership 



* Add a mala lag 1b four iJCa'i horn* pa-go 

You uft mi Itoi t#hMi i you ■* nth la «H yw id«i rfTML 



1. Copy lha mail lag Mm vd pudi I ite yom idi i horn* paga I ihaJd go n If* -cfiMa> wdiw. btlui Ih* tnt *b«h/> wcbon 



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Te rtay wniad. dari umaYi- If* nMt> tag man abf witcatioi wccwtda 



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YM {|A vf t Itoi «fi*A * yfri *«j |ht«4V h*l * GH04 AMlylW UK^fl CCA Ih* tftrt iftt M>tWJ***h* *h#*i Yft, fl^U b* in I^MKil^ W Ih* Aft*ty«t HWK 

Adif a DNS wowtf u ywr <kkmnHfi umBgiuADnn 

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W^"1[HMitt*l 



Figure 3.37 Code to Copy into WordPress (See Blue Highlighted Area) 

After copying the code highlighted in Figure 3.37. Paste it into the appropriate textbox shown in Figure 
3.38. This will ensure that Google recognizes the business blog and will give you the ability to review 
statistics related to the Website on the Google site. Figure 3.39 shows the process completed. 



Webmaster Tools Verification £7) 

Enter your meta key "content" value to verify your bloa with Gooale Webmaster Tools. Yahoo! Site Explorer, and Bina Webmaster Center 


Google Webmaster Tools _LHaLPZDW2jcRsow04SpPKZfSa1Q7pM0r-bJAVvJ 














Example: <niEta name=' google- site -verification ' content=" [JBw&cvbu^AxiB37Rp9c|i5llG2l74VlJ6JHHwIRwPSLIK3 , > 




Yahoo! Site Explorer 






Example: <ineta names' y_key' content='3Z36dee32aabe864 , > 












Bing Webmaste 


Center 














Example: <meta ^ame= , m5valida.te.0l , content= , i2Ci203B5ea6AECE94EB3.A l 3O9a3aflZE , > 














Save Changes 













Figure 3.38 Pasting Google Code Snippet Back into WordPress 



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101 



Web 2.0 and Social Media for Business 



More Blogging: WordPress Options 



Google webmaster central 



Verification successful 

Congratulations, you have successfully verified your ownership of http://web20forbusiness.wordpress.com/. 

Continue 



Figure 3.39 After Saving, Blog is Registered with Google 

In the same way the Blog was registered with Google, keys can be entered from Bing, and Yahoo. This 
will ensure your business blog is discovered and indexed. Remember, you will have to obtain UserlDs 
and passwords from these other two services before registering. WordPress's signup links provide a way 
to get to the correct pages. 

3.8 Connecting with Customers 

Publicity for a blog should extend beyond search engines. Social media has become an important venue 
for businesses to meet, connect with, and retain customers. WordPress provides a set of tools for exposing 
its blogs to social media. From the Dashboard, navigate to 'Tools' and Settings'. A screen similar to 
Figure 3.40 should appear. 



/fj Sharing Settings 



Publicize 

Connect your blog to popular social networking sites and automatically share new posts with yourfriends. 





twitter* 

Connect to Twitter 


or 

Connect to "■•"ahoo Updates 


;ted 

Connect to Messenger Connect 


Linked 

Connect to Linkedln 




facebook 






Connect to Facebook 





Sharing Buttons 

Add sharing buttons to your blog and allow your visitors to share posts with theirfhends. 



Available Services 



Drag anri drop the services you'll like 
to enable into the box below. 



-:;-: a r;-. ^- .-.zt 



(g| Email @ Print Digg @ Linkedln e3 Reddit 3) StumbleUpon +t Google +1 QTumblr Q Pinterest 



Figure 3.40 Connecting with Social Media 



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More Blogging: WordPress Options 



Select the social media choice by pressing a link. For example, Figure 3.41 provides an example of 
connecting to Twitter. WordPress will ask that you authorize the connection and then ask that you log 
into Twitter (through provided links). Once you have supplied a Twitter UserlD and Password, the blog 
will be connected (See Figure 3.42). Being connected to social media means the posts on your blog can 
be automatically sent to anyone in your network. In Twitter this means you can send out Tweets inviting 
Followers to read the newest blog entries. 



w your visitors 
a| Email 


or 

To enable Publicize: Twitter., you will need to authorize your 
WordPress.com account on Web 2.0 for Business to connect 
with your Twitter account. 


( Authorize connection with Twitter 



Figure 3.41 Authorizing a Connection to Twitter 



# Connected 

D is cd n n e ct fro m ~w itte r 



Figure 3.42 WordPress Blog Connected to Twitter 

Other social media services including Facebook, Linkedln, Yahoo! Updates, and Messenger Connect 
can be attached in similar fashion. 



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More Blogging: WordPress Options 



The next WordPress Dashboard section is called 'Sharing Buttons'. These buttons permit users to connect 
blog entries with their social media. For instance, providing a 'Facebook' button will automate the process 
of someone sharing a link to a specific blog post with their friends. This is a powerful way to set up 
the ground work for developing social buzz. When an online video or story goes viral, it means that 
people want to share it with their friends and so much sharing occurs that it spreads rapidly through 
social media connections. Figure 3.43 shows the 'Sharing Buttons' section. By dragging an icon from the 
upper row to the lower row, a button will be placed on your blog. Figure 3.44 shows that the enabled 
buttons for 'WordPress Press This', 'Twitter' and 'Facebook' are displayed on each blog post. Others can 
be added as well. Any buttons dragged into the darker gray area (shown in Figure 3.43) will display in 
a dropdown menu. Figure 3.45 provides a view of the blog post after enabling 'Reddit', 'StumbleUpon , 
'Digg', and 'Linkedln. 'Google +1', 'Tumblr', and 'Pinterest' were enabled and placed behind a share button 
(See Figure 3.46). Be sure to press the 'save' button at the bottom of the page to activate your changes. 




Meet one of our people and they'll ask about you. 
Not your resume. Because it's you, the person, we're 
p| \nAl\tlAt iali+ \t mterested in - After all, it's a big, diverse world out 
rcedl inaiViaUailiy. there# Tackling global business challenges takes 
UnrGdl tOOGthGrilGSS different viewpoints and fresh thinking. Listening. 
» * Sharing. Debating. It's all part of the job. All we're 

missing is you. Visit ey.com/internships. 




- * 4 ml 

° M w ■ill 

(\J r i» .ill 




=U Ernst &Young 

Quality In Everything We Do 



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Sharing Buttons 

Add sharing buttons to your blog and allow yourvisitors to share posts with theirfriends. 



Available Services 



Drag and drop the services you'd like 
to enable into the box below. 



|a| Email M Print Digg Linkedln d? Reddit Q) StumbleUpon *J Google -M QTumblr Pinterest 



-■/:?, : = ^-v ■■: = 



Enabled Services 



Services dragged here will appear 
individually. 



) Press This Twitter B Facebook 



Services dragged here will be hidden behind a share button. 



Figure 3.43 Sharing Button Section 



What Is Web 2.0 

tEDTUt 

Posted by web20forbusineE£ under Web 2.0 | Tags: Internet, Social 



Media, Web 2.0 | (edit this) 
Leave a Comment 



The term, Web 2.0, is used to describe a fundamental social way of using Internet 
technologies. As stated earlier, Web 2.0 doesn't refer to a technical update of underlying 

software or hardware but rather changes in the way the W T eb is being used and created 
by businesses, universities and society. W T eb 2.0 can be viewed as five major, 
interrelated components: [1) social computing, [2] social media, (3] filtering and 
recommendations, (4) content sharing, and (5) Web applications. 

Share this: @ Press This Q Twitter JJ Facebook 



Like this: Like Be the first to like this post. 



Figure 3.44 Blog Entry with Enabled Social Media Buttons 



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105 



Web 2.0 and Social Media for Business 



More Blogging: WordPress Options 



What is Web 2. o 

Posted by web20farbuEine«. under Web 2.0 | Tags: Internet^ Social 
Media, Web 2.0 | (edit this) 
Leave a Comment 



The term, Web 2.0, is used to describe a fundamental social way of using Internet 
technologies. As stated earlier, Web 2.0 doesirt refer to a technical update of underlying 
software or hardware but rather changes in the way the Web is being used and created 
by businesses, universities and society. Web 2.0 can be viewed as five major, 
interrelated components: (0 social computing, [25 social media, is) filtering and 
recommendations, (4) content sharing, and [5) W T eb applications. 



Share this: 


@ Press This J Twitter ^] StumbleUpon 
[3 Digg 3 Linkedln g| Retfdit J More 


*J Facebook 








J Pinterest 




Like this: 


'-Like Be the first D Tumblr [±3 ' J?J 





Figure 3.45 More Social Media Buttons Enabled (with Several Under 'More') 



Enabled Services 

Services dragged here v;ill appear 
individually. 


© Press This 


Q Twitter SJ] StumbleUpon 


Services dragged here will be hidden behind a share button. 

QTumblr *J : Google +1 @ Pinterest 




El Facebook 
m Reddit 


ED Digg Linkedln 



Figure 3.46 Enabled Services Setting in WordPress Dashboard 

The bottom of the 'Sharing Settings' page provides a few more options. Button Style, Sharing Label, 
whether links open in a New Window and where to show the Share Buttons can all be set (See Figure 
3.47). Often, it is advantageous to have links open in a new window so readers can come back to the 
original page more easily. 



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More Blogging: WordPress Options 



Button style 
Sharing label 
Open links in 
Show buttons on 



Icon +■ text ▼ 



Share this: 



New window 



□ Front Page, Archive Pages, and Search Results 
M Posts 

[7] Pages 

□ Media 



WordPress.com Like Button 

[7] Show a like button and who has liked my post on all of my blog posts above the comments section 



Save Changes 



Figure 3.47 Final Share Settings 




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More Blogging: WordPress Options 



Connecting with search engines and social media will help build traffic. To monitor traffic, WordPress 
provides a "My Stats" tab on your WordPress Login Page. Several statistics are maintained including 
number of visitors, search engine term referrals that lead visitors to the blog and other information. 
Figure 3.48 provides an example of this page. 



New Post Read Slogs Freshly Pressed Topics My Slogs My Stats 

Stats for February 24, 2012, 8:08 am 



Web 2.0 for Business [Dashboard) 



At A Glance Days Weeks Months 




11 



views all-time 





views today 



views on your busiest day, i-ecruary 20, 2012 



Summary Tables 



Referrers 

Today Yesterday Summaries - 

No referrers. Areferrer is a clicKfrom another site that links to yours. 

Want more referrers? You could turn on Publicize, or you could comment on other 
ologs! 



Top Posts & Pages 

Today Yesterday Sum marie 

Ho top posts or pages. This panel shows your most viewed posts and pages. 

Want more traffic? Read about how you can expand your slog's audience 



Figure 3.48 WordPress 'My Stats' Page 

3.9 Conclusions 

This chapter provided details on configuring a WordPress business blog. After completing the process, 
it becomes apparent that an eye-catching website is only part of the story. Perhaps the most important 
task is configuring the site to connect with search engines and customers through social media. Without 
the tools provided by a modern tool such as WordPress, a business puts itself at a disadvantage and fails 
to utilize all the free resources at its disposal. The next chapter will take a peek behind the scenes at RSS 
technology and how it powers blogs and blog-like tools. 

3.10 Bibliography 

Which (2012). "Set up a Blog." 
http://www.which.co.uk/technology/computing/guides/set-up-a-blog/create-your-blog/ 

WordPress (2012). http://Wordpress.com 



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Beyond Blogging: RSS and Podcasting 



4 Beyond Blogging: RSS and 
Podcasting 



Web 2.0 tools enable businesses to create content then share and disseminate this information with 
potential customers and others. This process has become so easy and widespread that the amount of 
available content has spread far beyond what any one person can ever hope to comprehend. Researchers 
call this situation information overload (Eppler and Megis, 2004) and have sought ways to reduce its 
impact. RSS is one such tool. This chapter describes RSS and how it enables a business to selectively move 
content on the Web. Other applications of RSS such as podcasting also will be described in this chapter. 

4.1 RSS Defined 

RSS is an acronym used for the term Really Simple Syndication that can provide a mechanism both for 
making information available and for filtering relevant material from vast resources available on the Web. 
In general, RSS includes a family of web feed formats used by publishers to disseminate material. Online 
news services such as CNN.com and BBC.co.uk use this technology extensively to publish news articles, 
headlines and other material in a standardized form. Figure 4.1 provides a look at the CNN RSS webpage 
( http://us.cnn.com/services/rss/ ) where its news stories are categorized into topic areas. Each area contains a 
list of stories. For instance, by clicking on the link for business feeds, the page shown in Figure 4.2 appears. 



Find and follow us: http://twitter.com/bioradlscareers BGStPlBCGS 

www.linkedin.com/groupsDirectory, search for Bio-Rad Life Sciences Careers {q Work 
http://bio-radlifesciencescareersblog.blogspot.com 




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Your Profession is Your Passion. Pass it On. 



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Senior Marketing Manager, Bio-Plex Business Unit 



Bio-Rad is a longtime leader in the life science research industry and has been 
voted one of the Best Places to Work by our employees in the San Francisco 
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Beyond Blogging: RSS and Podcasting 



CNN RSS 


Subscribe to CNN's RSS (Really Simple Syndication) feeds to get news delivered directly to your desktop! in addition to 
the feeds listed here, look for the small red feed icons across the site, or the orange auto-discovery icon in your browser 
bar. to subscribe to a number of other feeds from CNN.com. 

To view one of the CNN feeds in vour RSS Aaoreaator (About RSS Aoareaators}: 

1. Copy the URL/shortcut that corresponds to the topic that interests you. 

2. Paste the URL into your reader. 

My Yahoo! users: 

1. Click on the "Add to My Yahoo!" button. 

2. Follow the instructions for adding the feed to your My Yahoo! page. 

CNN.com now offers oodcastino feeds. G33I 

Please note tiat by scce==sng CNN RSS feeds, you agree to ojr le-ms cf -_=-e 

What is RSS? 1 How do 1 access RSS? 






Title Copy URLs to RSS Reader 


Top Stories 


htto: t7rss.cnn.com/rss/cnn top-stories, rss 




|Q myT&.«co! 1 




Worid 


httoj'/rss. cnn.com/rss/cnn world. rss © 




|Q MYVit«loO! | 






U.S. 






htto : r7rss . en n . com/rss/cn n us . rss 


m 


|Q MYVit^oO! | 




Sports (SI com) 


htto : .'/rss . en n . com/rss/si toDstorres . rss 


m 




|Q MY^YStHtJO! | 






Business (CNNMoney.com) 


htto: //rss. cnn.com/rss/money lalest.rss £) 




Q MYV3t«OC3! | 




Politics 


htto j'/rss. cnn.com/rss/cnn alloolitics.rss gg 




|Q M vTr5ff*oO! | 




Crime 


http://rss.cnn.com/rss/cnn crime. rss 




|E3 H¥V3l«oO! | 




Technology 


htto:. 7rss.cnn.com/rss/cnn tech. rss 




|Q M¥ Vit«00! | 






Health 


httoy.Tss.cnn.com/rss/cnn health. rss 




|Q myTG£**qo! J 









Figure 4.1 CNN.com RSS Feed Webpage 



Current Feed Content 



• A new recession seems inevitable 

Posted: Ri, 24 Feb 2012 16:44:55 EST 

While most economists have stopped worrying that the U.S. will fall into a double-dip recession, one influential 

economist maintains his position that the nation won't be able to avoid a new downturn. 

M Fed official warns of higher interest bill for Uncle Sam 

Posted: Fri. 24 Feb 2012 16:34:12 EST 

The Federal Reserve takes a lot of heat from critics for keeping interest rates low. But there's an upside that 
most people overlook: Low interest rates save the government money. 

» Porsche Cayennes recalled for bum headlights 

Posted: Fri, 24 Feb 2012 15:45:51 EST 

Porsche is recalling more than 100,000 of its Cayenne SUVs worldwide due to a headEight pfoblem. 

** Why the Federal Reserve can't fix housing 

Posted: Fri, 24 Feb 2012 15:13:25 EST 

Housing is still one of the biggest drags on U.S. economic growth, but don't lock to the Federal Reserve for 
help. The central bank may have few tools left to fix it. 



Figure 4.2 CNN.com RSS List of Business Stories 



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Web 2.0 and Social Media for Business Beyond Blogging: RSS and Podcasting 

Each of these stories represents material published in a standardized format that can be loaded into 
various Webpages or viewed by different RSS reader programs. Each time CNN publishes a news story, 
the document is stored as a feed and includes a text section, metadata (e.g. publication date, author, 
category, et cetera) and a title. CNN.com will draw content from the list of RSS feeds for its own website. 
By providing public access to the feeds, it also permits its content to be distributed to other websites and 
individual feed reader programs, such as Bloglines or Google Reader, where users subscribe to particular 
stories. In section 4.2.2, we will describe feed readers in more detail. 

RSS feeds provide a method for publishers to automate the syndication process (Kyrnin, 2012b). It uses 
a subset of XML tags to place the information in a standard format recognizable to reader programs and 
browsers. This permits the material to be published once and then be accessed by numerous consumers. 
Once a feed is in place, it can be used to create a stream of published material. 

RSS takes advantage of the WWW s structure and the way it works. XML is already used in the background 
of most dynamic, modern Websites. RSS uses this technology to identify user-desired digital content. 
"Links to that content are aggregated on a specific web site (or feed reader) so the material comes to 
the user instead of the other way around. Potential readers can acquire the information from a variety 
of sites and centralize it for viewing. The reader no longer needs to visit a specific blog. Instead, the 
centralized content is updated every time a user visits the Web and new items are automatically collected 
(McHaney, 2011, p. 104)". 

Figure 4.3 provides a view of a simple RSS feed's anatomy (Kyrnin, 2012a). Notice how the XML tags 
(the material inside the V and V brackets) describe what is being stored in the file. 



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Web 2.0 and Social Media for Business Beyond Blogging: RSS and Podcasting 

<?xml version="l . 0" encoding="utf-8"?> 

<rss version="2 . 0"> 

<channel> 

<title>This is the Title of the RSS Feed List</title> 

<link>http : //mchaney . com</link> 

<description>This section describes the feed list (not the individual blog 
post ! ) </description> 

<item> 

<title>This is one item from the blog</title> 
<link>http : //mchaney. com/rss/entryl . html</link> 

<description>This describes a blog entry and will appear in the reader 
description of the individual post . </description> 
<guidxhttp : //mchaney. com/rss/entryl . html</guid> 
</item> 

<item> 

<title>This is the second item from the blog</title> 

<link>http : //mchaney. com/rss/entry2 . html</link> 

<description>This describes the second blog entry and will appear in the 
reader description of the individual post . </description> 

<guidxhttp : //mchaney. com/rss/entry2 . html</guid> 

</item> 

</channel> 

</rss> 

Figure 4.3 Anatomy of a RSS Feed 

As shown in Figure 4.3, an RSS feed is intuitive and can be easily understood. The first few lines of the 
feed provide information to the reader software including: 

This is XML. <?xml version="l . 0" encoding="utf-8"?> 

This is RSS version 2.0. <rss version="2 . 0"> 

And the feeds are arranged into a channel. <channel> 

The next section describes the channel holding the feeds. For instance, in CNN.com this might be the 
'Business' or 'Technology related news feeds. The group of feeds has a 'Title', a 'Link' to their location, 
and a 'Description. In most situations, these feed elements will change very infrequently. 

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112 



Web 2.0 and Social Media for Business Beyond Blogging: RSS and Podcasting 

<title>This is the Title of the RSS Feed List</title> 

<link>http : //mchaney . com</link> 

<description>This section describes the feed list (not the individual blog 
post ! ) </description> 

The final part of the feed includes the individual items. This includes the actual text of the articles or 
posts being made available to readers. Each individual item is enclosed in a set of '<item>' tags. The first 
<item> opens an individual entry and the second </item> closes an individual item. 

Each item is structured much like the feed itself with <title>, <link>, and <description> tags. These items 
describe the name of the blog post (or article), a URL for its location on the Web, and a description of 
the post content. 

<item> 

<title>This is one item from the blog</title> 

<link>http : //mchaney. com/rss/entryl . html</link> 

<description>This describes a blog entry and will appear in the reader 
description of the individual post . </description> 

<guidxhttp : //mchaney. com/rss/entryl . html</guid> 

</item> 

An additional tag, <guid>, specifies a unique URL for the post. This is often the same URL as the <link> 
tag but can be a separate permanent link (permalink) where the post will be stored. The final tags close 
the item, the channel, and the rss. This is required in XML structures to ensure the code is complete. 

</item> 

</channel> 

</rss> 

4.2 RSS in Practice 

RSS feed technology benefits both a business and the consumer. For a business, the advantages are 
apparent. After enabling RSS feed capability on a blog or other website, material can be published once 
and it becomes instantly available to anyone with an Internet connection. The material can be read by 
individual consumers or can be repurposed and easily published on countless other websites and social 
media outlets (Pollette, 2004; Watson, 2008). 



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From the perspective of an individual, RSS provides a mechanism for reducing information overload. 
For example, imagine an individual who has located 30 interesting business blogs. If she were to visit 
each site each day searching for new items, a large investment of her time would be required. RSS feed 
technology permits the material to be piped into an aggregator as it is published. The aggregated material 
is available in one central, convenient location and can be accessed in many ways (e.g. on a computer, 
via mobile device, or iPad). The next section provides more information about RSS feed readers. 

4.2.1 RSS Feeds 

RSS feeds can be read in a variety of ways. In general, reader software provides an efficient way to 
subscribe to news articles and blogs from a variety of relevant sources. These feed readers reduce and 
eliminate spam and advertising material that may slow down the reading process. A variety of feed 
reader software is available and many products are competing for dominance in that area. Categories 
of feed readers are shown in Table 4.1. Different approaches to acquiring feeds have been developed 
by various software vendors. 



Category 


Description 


Advantages 


Disadvantages 


Built-in to 
Browsers 


Most web browsers (for example 
Firefox, Internet Explorer and Safari) 
now include features to view and 
subscribe to RSS feeds. 


Convenient and eliminates 
the need to switch between 
programs to subscribe, read, 
and browse; free 


Creates problems when 
the user wants to access 
material on multiple 
computers 


Portal Page 


Personal homepages provided by 
services such as Yahoo! and Google 
that, in addition to many other 
functions, incorporate feed readers. 
Other programs like NetVibes are 
specifically created for this function. 


Provide a great deal of 
functionality and can be a 
'home' on the web; permit 
the user to see the same set 
of feeds on any computer or 
mobile device; free 


Provides limited features 
for RSS feeds; groups feeds 
by website instead of by 
category (some services are 
starting to change this) 


Aggregator 
Software 


Fully featured software specifically 
created to enable users to subscribe 
to and read RSS feeds from news 
services and blogs. Examples will be 
provided in Table 4.2. 


Offer special options on 
reading, display, subscribing 
and marking feeds; articles 
can be saved or bookmarked 
and tagged; synchronization 
between different devices is 
possible 


Less convenient than 
accessing material in a 
browser; some programs 
require purchase or 
subscription fees 



Table 4.1 Feed Reader Categories 



4.2.2 RSS Feed Readers 



While browsers and personal portal pages can provide useful features related to RSS feed aggregation, 
fully featured, aggregator programs will help the business user harness the full power of RSS technology 
through organizing, searching, categorizing and using news and blog entries. 



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Aggregator software goes by many names and is sometimes called a feed collector, news reader, blog 
reader, RSS reader, and other names. With aggregator software, new content can be continually added 
to a collection even when the user is not online. Some software pulls in feeds at preset intervals. The 
RSS symbol, shown in Figure 4.4, indicates the presence of feeds. Table 4.2 provides examples of feed 
reader software and popular aggregators. 




Figure 4.4 RSS Symbol found on Websites 





Website 


Description 


^jncwsgotor 




http://www.feeddemon.com/ 


FeedDemon is a popular free RSS Feed reader for Windows. 
It provides a number of features including synchronization 
with Google Reader, features to permit sharing articles with 
friends and colleagues, article tagging, watch settings to help 
FeedDemon locate new articles and feeds that might be of 
interest, searches, and the ability to download and manage 
podcasts. FeedDemon is part of the Newsgator family of 
products that specialize in information management for 
companies that want to engage in enterprise newsreader and 
other information acquisition and management services. 


1 ;£=wW^ 








http://www.newzcrawler.com/ 


Newzcrawler is a RSS/atom reader, news aggregator, browser 
and blog client for Windows which provides access to news 
content from syndicated news given in XML-based formats 
(Atom, RSS, RDF, Backslash, etc.), Usenet (NNTP) newsgroups, 
and web pages (HTTP). Provides a number of views: News 
List, News Balloon and News Ticker. User interface similar 
to MS Outlook. Retrieves news from various web sources in 
background and displays in customizable views. Combines RSS, 
Atom (Atom is another feed format similar to RSS), Newsgroups 
and Web pages in one application. 


tAogbrirfge 


http://www.bloqbridqe.com/ 


BlogBridge is an open source Java-based aggregator aimed at 
business professionals who need a powerful blog and news 
feed reader service. BlogBridge is designed for acquiring and 
managing large numbers of feeds, and works well for people 
who subscribe to many feeds. BlogBridge's website mentions 
that its target audience includes journalists, PR professionals 
and information enthusiasts. 



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Website 


Description 


Google 

Reader 


http:// reader.qooqle.com 


Google Reader is a Web-based aggregator designed to read 
Atom and RSS feeds both on- or offline. Its primary features 
include: a front page for viewing new items at a glance; ability 
to import and export subscription lists as an OPML files (OPML is 
Outline Processor Markup Language file used to exchange lists 
of web feeds between web feed aggregators); different options 
for concise or expanded item viewing; automatic marking of 
items as read as they are scrolled past; and search capability in 
all feeds, across all updates from all subscriptions. 


rnfe^isi 


http://www.netvibes.com/ 


Although Netvibes is included as an RSS Reader, it is actually a 
personalized web portal. In additional to being a fully featured 
feed reader, it also acts as an overall platform for interacting 
with webpages and social media in many other ways. 



Table 4.2 Example RSS Feed Readers 



4.2.3 Setting Up a Feed Reader (FeedDemon) 



Feed readers are implemented either as online platforms or as software that is downloaded and installed 
on a particular computer. FeedDemon is downloaded to a particular primary computer platform but 
can still be synchronized with other computers where it is used by the same person. Figures 4.5 and 4.6 
show the software being downloaded and installed. 




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116 




Web 2.0 and Social Media for Business 



Beyond Blogging: RSS and Podcasting 




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Figure 4.5 Download FeedDemon 



f§ Setup - FeedDemon 




Thanks for Using FeedDemon! 



Please choose a setup preference: 

«■ Express Setup (Recommended) 

Install using the default location and options 

Custom Setup (Advanced] 

Enable choosing the install location and options 

I]I have read and accept the license agreement 



View license agreement 



View release notes 



Next> 



Cancel 



Figure 4.6 Download Complete: Use Express Setup to Install 



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Web 2.0 and Social Media for Business 



Beyond Blogging: RSS and Podcasting 



A wizard helps install the software. You will be prompted to synchronize with Google reader if you 
already use that software and asked whether you want sample feeds to be loaded into your system. For 
this example, I answered 'no' to both of those. Following installation, the screen shown in Figure 4.7 
will appear. The 'Subscribe dropdown menu is circled. This can be used to add RSS feed subscriptions 
to the reader. 



\¥< 



FeedDemon Lite 4.0.0.22 




View Browse Favorites Tools Help 



Views T ' 



_* 



Shew 



Unread or Starred 



Next Unread 



J A Watches 

B Unread Articles 
gg Starred Articles 
B Today s Artides 
& Yesterday s Articles 



Subscriptions 



Popular in My Subscriptions 



No popular topics were found. You may not be 
subscribed to enough feeds which link to the same 
articles. 



Figure 4.7 Adding Subscriptions to FeedDemon 

Adding RSS feeds is simple with FeedDemon. It provides a 'discovery' process so any website address 
can be input and the software will attempt to locate a feed. Pulling down the Subscribe menu circled in 
Figure 4.7 and selecting 'New Subscription will provide a prompt for the website URL. Figure 4.8 shows 
the wizard. The website mchaney.com was added to the prompt and FeedDemon went to the blog and 
found a list of blog entries there that are available under: http://mchaney.com/feeds. 



Subscribe 



^zn\ 




Subscribe to a Feed 

Enter a feed URL, or type a keyword to subscribe to a search feed: 
http :..'/ m c h a n ey . c o m| 



[71 Check for problems in this feed before subscribing to it 

Tip: Enter the address of a site's home page to auto-discover its feed 



P Preview 



Next> Cancel 



Figure 4.8 New Subscriptions Using FeedDemon 



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118 



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Beyond Blogging: RSS and Podcasting 



Previewing the subscription ensures the correct material has been located. Figure 4.9 provides an example 
of previewing the mchaney.com blog website. 




Free Higher Education with Udncity 

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The world of higher education could be on the verge of a major paradigm shift, Sebastian Trirun, a former professor of computer science at 
Stanford-, has stepped down trorn his academic post to dedicate himself to running Udacrty. an onfine university poised to offer nigh quality 
online pHur... 



SOPAj Not Far Enough?!? Stop Subway Whistlers Too! 

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Dec 30, 2011 | ProfffosjerMc 

When in London it's hard not to overhear what people around you are saying. You are surrounded by people on the bus. the tube, and 
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Figure 4.9 Previewing New Subscriptions with FeedDemon 



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119 




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Beyond Blogging: RSS and Podcasting 



The subscription is available for reading in FeedDemon now. Favorite articles can be 'starred' and articles 
can be marked as 'read' or unread'. Searches can be performed and various views of the articles can be 
used. Figure 4.10 provides an example of the user interface. 



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.5 Subscriptions 

H igher Ed u cation / : 
fj New Digital Shoreline (9) 
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c Tags; 



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Show Unread or Starred » ,'_... Next Unread V/eh Address or Search Phrase 



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academic post to dedicate himself to running Udacity, an online university poised to offer r 

£3 *£$ \> SOPA: Not Far Enough?!? Stop Subway Whistlers Too! ^ New Digital Shoreline ProfftogerWc 
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l ife When in London rt's hard not to overhear what people around you are saying. You are surr 

■ a. neighbors or people outside are talking about. Maybe that's why strangers don't go out oi 



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I am not sure you'll see Asimo in Higher Education circles anytime soon. However, this is a ■ 



Figure 4.10 FeedDemon with a Feed Subscription 

Additional subscriptions can be added to either the same or different folders. Then articles from a 
particular website, a particular folder, or all subscriptions can be viewed. Figure 4.11 shows the screen 
after adding a number of additional subscriptions. 

(jf FeedDemon Lite 4.0.0.22 



File Edit View Browse Favorites 
^ Subscribe T ■ Views T '" 
<*fy Subscriptions 

* H Eg her Ed u cation (44 } H 

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(Victoria A Davis, Cooi Cat Teacher) 

All About Creative Commons And Copyright - LiveBinder Excellent livebinder on copyright for those working with glob 
Posted from Diigo. The rest of my favorite links are here. This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution- 



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retell the story, tags: education lessonplans teaching elemchat literature reading literacy' Drawing a Fairy Tale - Resour 



_j i> [> Learning about Learning: Research and Edreform News and Views 02/25/2012 ^ Cooi Cat Teacher 
Biog cooicatteacter@grnaiLcom (Victoria A Davis, Cool. Cat Teacher) 
25 alleged Anonymous members arrested internationally: hacker group retaliates Hackers have knocked down Interpo 
"Tuesday afternoon, the international police organization Interpol announced the arrest of 25 alleged ... 



Figure 4.1 1 FeedDemon with a Feed Subscription 



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Although FeedDemon provides a search and discovery feature to find feeds located around the Web, 
not all feed readers do. In these cases, it is necessary to find the RSS link URL from the external blog or 
website manually and then add it. Most blogs place their RSS link as either text or an RSS icon. Clicking 
on this symbol will open a Web browser page with the feed URL. For example, Figure 4.12 demonstrates 
where to find an RSS feed link on the cnn.com website. If the icon is not on the web page itself, it may 
be available on the browser. It is circled in red in Figure 4.12. Press this to get the feeds. If this Icon 
displays as an orange color, usually the current website has active RSS feeds. 




Figure 4.12 RSS Feed Icon on Internet Explorer Browser 

Figure 4.13 shows the displayed page after the user presses the RSS icon. Notice the URL: http://rss.cnn. 
com/rss/cnn topstories.rss . This is the link that can be copied and pasted into a feed reader. 



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Surprise drop in jobs in January 



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The content obtained via RSS feeds can be more than text. RSS technology is also used to broadcast 
images, audio and video. For instance, subscribe to a podcast in iTunes and essentially you have subscribed 
to a feed using a different environment. The next sections will investigate how RSS is used with other 
broadcasting tools on the Web - podcasting and videocasting. 

4.3 Podcasting 

Podcasting emerged on the Web for many of the same reasons that blogging did: it provides an easy and 
low cost method for anyone to get a message out. Podcasting uses the same technologies as blogging 
and can be compared to radio infrastructure, except without FCC oversight and as many costly entry 
barriers. Podcasting provides a mechanism for businesses to instantly connect with clients, potential 
customers and other stakeholders with virtually no startup costs. Podcasting essentially allows a business 
to become a broadcaster. 

Podcasts are very similar to blog posts except text is replaced with audio files. The concept involves 
uploading digital audio files (generally in MP3 format) to a server where Internet users are able to access 
the material from an audio player, mobile device, or computer. Podcasts use a particular XML format 
to ensure cross-platform compatibility. 

Like blogs, podcasts can be syndicated and published using RSS technology. A web infrastructure has 
grown up around podcasting and it is widely used by entertainment and music industries. Websites such 
as Apples iTunes and Podcastalley.com index and provide access to thousands of regularly produced 
podcasts where businesses, organizations, and individuals have created programs ranging from political 
opinion to comedy to business advice. While some broadcasts are decidedly amateur, many businesses 
produce professional material and spend a great deal of money to get their message out on the Web 
this way. 

4.3.1 Why Podcast 

Many small businesses discount the idea of podcasting because it sounds adolescent and non-professional. 
Although the term podcast does carry some of that stigma (after all it did emerge from the efforts of 
former MTV video jockey Adam Curry), businesses can benefit from this technology. Small businesses 
in particular can use this low cost method of reaching customers without much investment. 

Some of the advantages of podcasting are included in Table 4.3. 



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Advantage 


Discussion 


Reaches specific audience 


A business can create custom content for a very specific audience. For small, 
local businesses this is a huge advantage and permits a sense of dialog to 
be developed with a client base. 


Detached from the computer 


The podcast is not dependent on a particular computer or computer system. 
It can be recorded remotely and its listeners are able to hear it where and 
when they choose. 


Unregulated content 


Unlike radio broadcasts, the content of a podcast is not regulated. Also, 
the message comes from the business, and it is not a second hand, edited 
version that a news agency might produce. 


Downloads for listening convenience 


A podcast can be downloaded to a mobile device and then played at the 
convenience of the listener. 


Ability to subscribe to a series 


A podcast can be developed as a series with episodes and additional 
information as time goes on. The series can be subscribed to by listeners so 
as new podcasts are developed, they will automatically have access to them. 


Any digital audio device works 


A business client can listen to the podcast on any device that is convenient. 
For instance, they could listen to it on their mobile phone or in their car 
audio system. 


Low Cost 


Podcasting can be done with very little investment. 



Table 4.3 Business Advantages for Podcasting 

4.3.2 Podcast Approaches for Business 

Podcasting is one of the older forms of interacting over the Web, even though it did not really begin in 
its current form until about 2004 (King, 2004). In spite of this, and even though podcasting has often 
been associated with entertainment, businesses can still find many uses for the technology. 

Traditional podcast formats were modeled on the idea of a radio show using a charismatic host to capture 
the attention of an audience. Podcasting in business has progressed well beyond that to become a powerful 
tool used by marketing departments and others to connect with prospective clients, existing customers, 
and other strategic partners like members of the media, shareholders, employees and other stakeholders. 

In addition to using podcasting as a marketing tool to discuss new products, company developments 
and changes, or research and development work, the following approaches can be used: 

• Allow customers to tell their stories. Customer interviews can be recorded and featured on 
the company website or blog. This gives prospective clients legitimate, third-party opinions 
about the goods or services provided by your business. Two benefits result from this approach. 
First, your company may reach new customers and, second, the existing customers who are 
featured will feel more connected to your business. 

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• Company events can be recorded and rebroadcast. Training sessions, expert talks, and other 
company events can be used as podcast content. This makes the material available to employees 
that may have missed the original event and also provides a sense of life for your business and 
visitors to its website or blog. Be sure to have a standard, signed agreement from any presenters 
that are featured in your company podcasts to avoid misunderstandings. Some consultants and 
speakers do not permit their speeches to be freely posted. 

• Create connections with Podcasts. Industry experts and book authors are usually very open 
to interview offers. This provides them with publicity and legitimizing their standing while 
providing ways to get more viewers to your company blog or website. Getting high quality 
guests can result in high quality content and more traffic. 

• Interview employees. By creating podcasts of various employees in the business, customers 
and prospective clients can get to know your staff. Seeing friendly faces and hearing them 
passionately talk about their work and their committee to the company and its customers can 
help provide a sense of confidence in your business. 

• Build a strategic network. It may be possible to interview and podcast key members of your 
business or industry (e.g. trade associate president, chamber of commerce president, and 
others). This will help build a strong network of partners and provide more notice and visibility 
for your business by key individuals. 




REDEFINE YOUR FUTURE 

AXA GLOBAL 
GRADUATE PROGRAM 



redefining /standards 




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4.3.3 Podcast Mechanics 

Creating a podcast can be as simple as creating an audio recording and posting it to a blog or website. 
However, a simplistic approach such as that will not take advantage of all the benefits podcasting has 
to offer. 

As with any material (written, audio, or video), preparation and planning are key activities. The first 
step in podcasting is to create a plan. Planning can include a range of areas. Among these are topics, 
participants, duration, background music or sound effects, and a theme for the podcast series. Other 
infrastructure items also will need to be in place. This includes the recording equipment, location, editing 
software, web site or blog structure, and an approach for syndication (Podcasting News, 2010). Table 4.4 
lists several important elements and tools that can be used. 



Element 


Examples 


Website or Blog for publishing Podcast 


WordPress, Blogger,TypePad 


Podcast File Hosting Service 


LibSyn, AudioBlogger 


Recording Software 


Audacity, GarageBand 


Microphone 


Headset Microphone, USB Microphone such as Blue Snowball 


Remote Interview Tool 


Skype 



Table 4.4 Podcasting Elements 

A successful business podcast will need to have a theme. For instance, a theme might be to highlight 
new products. Another example might be to introduce members of your business team to the general 
public. Larger companies may have a number of blogs each with different themes. Figure 4.14 shows 
the variety of blogs offered by Cisco. 



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Beyond Blogging: RSS and Podcasting 



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CISCO 


t 


1 










Welcome 


to the Cisco Blogs 


n 




B,o g Directory . 


Technology 


Industries 




More From Cisco 


Countries and Regions 


Borderless Networks 


Education 




Inside Cisco IT 


Canada 


CiscoHome 


Financial Services 




Social Media 


Emerging Countries 


Cisco Interaction Network 


Government 




Open At Cisco 


France ^ 


Collaboration 


Healthcare 




Web Experience 


Germany 


Connected Life Exchange 


Manufacturing 




Corporate/News 


Portugal 


Data Center and Cloud 


Retail 




The Platform 


Russia 


Ecolibrium 


Support 




Analyst Relations 




High Peformance Computing 
Networking 

Mobility 

Security 

Small Business 


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Corporate Social Responsibility 
High Tech Policy 




Channels 




Inclusion and Diversity 




The Truth About Marketing 






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Video 










Virtual Environments 











Figure 4.14 Cisco Blog Themes 

Once a theme is conceptualized for a blog, it helps to create a written description to explain its purpose 
(remember this is for a series of podcasts not just a single episode). This helps provides a common vision 
for the production team much like an organizational mission statement does for a company. The podcast 
theme should be stated in written form in one or two sentences. 

The theme can be used to help select a name for the podcast series. This name should reflect the expected 
content and should consider that web searches will use the name and link it to user key words. Depending 
on the goals for your business podcast, it may be desirable to acquire a domain name that matches the 
podcast name. Having a domain name, even if your podcast is embedded on your business website, can 
allow new listeners to find the broadcast more easily and will enable additional indexing on Google, 
Bing, and other search engines. 

Although a podcast can be created in an ad hoc fashion, approaching the process by developing a script or 
at least an outline is a good idea. A typical podcast can be structured in the manner shown in Table 4.5. 



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Component 


Examples 


Approximate 
Time 


Intro Screen 
with music 
(catchy jingle) 


A short professional quality introduction to the podcast series with voice and 
music. 

Suitable music can be acquired from online Websites such as the Free Music 
Archive (FMA) at http://freemusicarchive.orq/ 

Some businesses will contact a local radio station and have them create a common 
podcast introduction audio with a professional voice. This same introduction can 
then be used for all episodes of the series. It is also possible to acquire a voice from 
online talent sources such as: http://www.podcastinqvoicetalent.com/ or 
http://podcastvoices.com/ or http://voices.com 

The same approach can be taken by writing a script for the entire episode and 
having a professional voice do the complete soundtrack. 


30 seconds 


Episode Intro 
Monologue 


Provides a quick overview of the episode and highlights specific topics about to be 
covered. 


30-60 
seconds 


Topic 1 


The podcast can be broken into about four sections. Each topic represents a 
question being asked of a guest or a different topic area relating to the overall 
theme. 


2-3 minutes 


Topic 2 


The second topic in the show. 


2-3 minutes 


Interlude 


Use the introduction music for a few seconds to provide a break for the listeners. 
This is not needed in shorter podcasts. 


10 seconds 



At Navigant, there is no limit to the impact you 
can have. As you envision your future and all 
the wonderful rewards your exceptional talents 
will bring, we offer this simple guiding principle: 
It's not what we do. It's how we do it. 

Impact matters. 



NAVIGANT 



iavigant.com 



DISPUTES & INVESTIGATIONS • ECC 



3 Navigant Consulting, Inc. All rights reserved. Navigant Consulting 
attest, or public accounting services. 



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Component 


Examples 


Approximate 
Time 


Topic 3 


The third topic in the show. 


2-3 minutes 


Topic 4 


The final topic in the show. 


2-3 minutes 


Closing 
Remarks 


Summarize the podcast and optionally provide a teaser for the next episode. 


2 minutes 


Closing Music 


The music used for the introduction is played again here. This time, it goes a little 
longer. 


2 minutes 



Table 4.5 Typical Podcast Structure 

A podcast script can help guide the program and provide a sense of confidence as the recording progresses. 
Since most podcasts are not live, the recording can be edited and rerecorded in spots to make the final 
version sound professional. Many podcasts are cleaned to remove the ahhs' and misstatements that 
have been made. 

4.3.4 Creating the Podcast 

Podcasts can be recorded in a variety of ways ranging from free tools available on any computer to using 
expensive, professional studios. The quality of the broadcast will be affected by the resources available 
for the project. Depending on the goals of the podcasts, different approaches should be considered. 
However, it is possible to get a professional sounding podcast without a large investment. This balance 
between cost and quality is where many small businesses set their focus. 

The creation of a big budget podcast can involve hiring a development team that writes a script, has 
custom music developed, hires voice talent and uses a professional recording studio. A more modest 
approach requires experimenting with recording on existing hardware, acquiring free or low cost software 
and other online tools. A few simple things can be done to enhance recording quality and provide a 
professional-sounding podcast. Without careful attention to the sound quality, the result will reflect 
poorly on your business and perhaps cause potential customers to look elsewhere. Most reasonable quality 
business podcasting setups will require a budget of between $500 and $1000, although it is possible for 
a skilled person to accomplish this for much less. 

Most podcasts are recorded using audio recorders on Macs or PCs. Essentially a software program such 
as Audacity or GarageBand enables the recording and stores a digital file of the voice on the computers 
hard drive. The file can be manipulated and changed, music added, and sound effects added with a 
computer-based recording approach. Creating a high quality voice recording does require practice. The 
software company Audacity provides a good online guide to help get started: 

http://manual.audacityteam.org/index.php?title=Podcasting:Hardware and Software Set Up 
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4.3.5 Hardware Elements 

A basic set of hardware can be used to enable a small business to create podcasts. Table 4.6 provides an 
overview. 



Hardware 
Component 



Description 



Examples 



Computer 



A PC or Mac can be used for podcasting. Most modern computers 
sold in the past few years will generally be suitable. Having larger 
amounts of RAM and a USB port are helpful and will enable editing 
and buffering during the recording process to be more effective. 
Lap tops can also be used but some may have a lower sound 
quality. iPads can also be used as podcasting platforms but will 
have some limitations due to storage capacity (Blue Mic, 2012b). 



Dell with Windows 7 or above, 
dual core processor or above, 4 
or more GB of RAM and a 500 
GB or more hard drive 

Apple iMac with Quad Core. 

iPad with iOS 4.3 update and 
Apple's camera connection kit 




Photo from: http://blueblog.bluemic.com/category/press-releases/ 



Hard Disk 



An external hard drive can be used with Macs or PCs for storing 
podcasts and audio recordings. Portable hard drives work well and 
can connect through USB or USB 2.0 ports on the computer. It is 
possible to record directly to the computer's hard drive and later 
transfer the recordings to the external hard drive for back up and 
manipulation. 



Iomega Prestige Portable Hard 
Drive 

Toshiba StorEAIu2 1TB 



Microphone 



In order to get good sound quality, a USB microphone is preferred 
to one that plugs into a sound card on a computer. The USB 
microphone isolates the sound processing circuitry and avoids 
having internal feedback from the computer's other electronics. 



Blue Snowball from 
http://www.bluemic.com/ 

The Blue Snowball is a 
reasonably priced, professional 
grade microphone This is an 
excellent USB microphone 
used by many professionals at 
a reasonable price (Blue Mic, 
2012a). 



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Hardware 
Component 



Description 



Examples 



Pop Filter 



A pop filter is a small screen that can be placed between a 
speaker and the microphone he or she is using. Although it will 
not eliminate all pops and extra noises, it will reduce the impact 
of puffs or pops created by a speaker catching his or her breath 
between statements. The pops and puffs are insidious to a 
recording because they create spikes in the digital recording that 
the software then uses in trying to optimize the recording. Pop 
filters go a long way toward making a recording sound much more 
professional (Airrest, 201 1). 



Samson PS01 




Mixer 



A mixer is a device that helps bring multiple sound sources 
into the recording. A mixer can be used to bring in multiple 
microphones (if your podcast uses an interview or multiple 
hosts), it can bring in sound effects from another computer, or a 
telephone line. In addition, a mixer can be used to adjust inputs, 
equal different levels and create better sound recordings. If a 
podcast only uses a single source, like one microphone, the mixing 
can be done with the software itself. However, having a physical 
mixer gives the recording more possibilities and provides a better 
quality recording. Mixers have three general attributes: (1) number 
of channels; (2) whether they are digital or analog; and (3) their 
general quality. A low cost, basic mixer will generally have 1 2 
channels. For podcasting, only about half of these will be used. The 
digital features found on a mixer may include effects like reverb, 
echo, or other distortion. 



Yamaha MG1 0/2 Mixer 




Sound 

Absorbing 

Material 



In order to create a good sounding podcast, the use of a sound 
absorbing material in the recording studio can be helpful. For a 
low-cost solution, blankets or rugs can be hung on the walls. For a 
better solution, foam can be permanently affixed to the walls. 



ZZ Sounds Studio Foam 

http://www.zzounds.com/item-- 

AUR4PYR22 




Table 4.6 Podcast Hardware Elements 

4.3.6 Software Elements 

As mentioned earlier, creating a professional quality podcast requires a software element. Most podcasts 
are developed using audio editing software such as Audacity or GarageBand. However, fully featured, 
podcast development software is also available. Depending on the types of podcasts being developed, it 
may also be necessary to use software to record speakers from geographically separated areas. 



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A primary element for podcasting is the digital recording software. Audacity, an open source digital 
audio editor, is popular among podcasters. It is compatible with Windows, Apple's OSX, Linux and 
other systems. Its primary focus is on audio capture and editing. This means podcasts can be created 
with Audacity but then must rely on another service for publishing and distribution. Audacity provides 
support for a number of audio formats, including the most popular, MP3. However, it has problems 
with proprietary formats such as WMA or AAC. This means audio converter software, such as Switch 
( http://www.nch.com.au/switch/ ) might be required so certain audio tracks can be imported and used 
as part of the podcast. Audacity permits a number of recording sources including microphones, line in, 
mixers, and audio captures from the onboard computer sound card. Recordings can be digitized from a 
number of sources. Audacity provides several editing tools for mixing, fades, noise reduction, cropping, 
multiple track integration, and special effects. Sound editing is considered Audacity's primary strength 
(see Figure 4.15). 



I I Audacity 



Home | About | 1 Download | | Help | | Contact Us | | Get Involved | | Donate | 



Audacity® is free, open source, cross-platform software for recording & editing sounds. 

Audacity is available for Mac OS X, Microsoft Windows, GNU/Linux. and other operating 
systems. Learn more about Aucaciiy .. Also check our Wiki and Foruir Tor more information. 

The current release of Audacity is 1,3.14 . Most users should download this version. See 
New Features for more information. We will soon release version 2.0, replacing both this 
version and 1.2. 



Download Audacity 1.3.14 

for Windows® 9S/ME/2000/XPA/ista/7 



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Figure 4.16 Audacity Audio Software for Podcasting 

GarageBand, from Apple, is also commonly used to develop podcasts. Its primary focus is to support 
digital recording and mixing music tracks. However, its streamlined interface and easy to use tools 
make it popular among podcasters. GarageBand provides capability for capture, editing, importing and 
manipulating a wide variety of audio files. One of its biggest strengths is its integration with iTunes. This 
simplifies the publishing aspect of podcasting. 

Both Audacity and GarageBand can be used to capture audio from other software running on a computer. 
Many times a podcast will involve interviewing someone that is not physically present. This will require 
software that permits communication at a distance. Skype or other audio conferencing software can 
be run on the local computer and then the conversation can be captured and imported into the audio 
editing software (Hiitola, 2010). 

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4.3.7 Specialized Podcasting Software 

Besides using general purpose recording software such as GarageBand and Audacity, a business can 
purchase and use specialized podcasting software (Pod Cast Software Review, 2012). In addition to 
allowing businesses to record and edit podcasts, these packages facilitate publication, syndication and 
distribution. The publishing features typically include adding tags and descriptions to the podcasts and 
then posting the podcast to a blog or podcast directory. Table 4.7 provides examples. 



Software 


Website 


Description 


Propaganda 1.2 


http://www.makepropaqanda.com 


This software is specifically created to make podcasting 
simple. Its interface resembles iTunes and provides easy 
selections to record, edit, arrange, and publish audio files in 
podcast form. 


Web Pod Studio 


http://www.lionhardt.ca/wps/ 


WebPod Studio provides both audio and video Podcast 
development support. It is designed to create new content, 
gather existing material and produce quality audio and 
video broadcasts. It also supports creating CDs and DVDs. 
Web Pod Studio offers support for transcripts and other 
materials needed to produce quality broadcasts. 


PodCastStudio 


http://www.behrinqer.com 


This is a hardware and software system best described as 
a podcasting studio in a box. Everything is provided for 
professional podcasting, music production and digital 
recording, USB/audio interface, mixer, microphone, 
headphones and software. 


ePodCast 
Producer 


http://thepodcastcompanv.co.uk 


This is a complete integrated podcasting support system 
that enables recording, editing, uploading, and recording 
telephone interviews with VolP/Skype. It also provides an 
on-screen teleprompter, and DSP voice effects. It offers 
separate voice and music tracks with complete mixing and 
fading features. Further support is available for publishing 
and tagging in iTunes. 



Table 4.7 Specialized Podcasting Software 



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4.3.8 Recording and Mixing Hints 

Creating a podcast is more than just hooking a microphone to a computer and pressing the record button. 
It is important to create an environment for recording that will ensure the broadcast sounds natural and 
eliminates distractions for the listeners. One approach is to create a small recording studio in a quiet 
setting with acoustic material on the walls. If this isn't possible and the recording will be conducted at a 
particular location (e.g. a business setting or public space), it is best to visit the location ahead of time 
and become familiar with the surroundings. Identify the best place to set up the recording equipment 
that minimizes background noise. Be sure that your location is not subject to disruptions at particular 
times of the day. If you plan to interview someone, be sure to give them details about the interview, the 
location, and the approach you plan to use. If possible, it helps to have a casual conversation with them 
prior to the podcast to ensure a sense of ease with one another. 

Creating a single person monologue is the most basic form of podcast. This puts the broadcaster in 
control of where the podcast is recorded, how it is recorded and the material that will be covered. A 
monologue can be rehearsed and if necessary rerecorded and edited. In order to create a successful 
broadcast, it is important to have a quiet block of time where interruptions (such as incoming phone 
calls) are minimized. 




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Podcasts can be become increasingly complex as more voices are added to the broadcast. Interviews, 
guest speakers, question/answer sessions, and call-in contributors can make the podcast much more 
interesting but will also complicate the recording. The ability to 'redo' becomes more difficult and editing 
might take longer. However, the resulting material will be more interesting and dynamic which can lead 
to a larger audience. 

No matter which approach is adopted, a finished podcast should sound natural and easily flow from 
sentence to sentence. Editing can be used to eliminate lengthy pauses, umms', or mistakes. Good editing 
software will make the speaker sound much better. Noises inherent to the room also can be removed. If 
an unexpected sound overlaps a word being spoken by the podcaster, another take of the word or words 
can be found in the broadcast, then copied and spliced over the problem area. 

When the content is fully recorded, it becomes time to mix in the podcast introduction material where 
the name of the podcast, the episode number and the theme music are all added. This should include the 
voice of a professional announcer, distinct from the podcast host. This same music can be used between 
podcast segments. The theme music can signal different topics and can be brought in quietly over the 
ending moments of the talk and gradually made louder until the speaking is complete. When the next 
segment begins, the music volume can be decreased when the speaker begins. These musical transitions 
are known as bumpers or sweepers. 

Finally, when the entire podcast is constructed, review the overall sound levels and be sure everything 
is at approximately the same level. The listeners should not have to adjust their volumes periodically 
during the podcast. 

4.3.9 Podcast Publishing 

The finished podcast needs to be put online in a location where listeners can access it. Although the file 
can be simply posted on a website, this approach has limitations. For instance, unless your series has a 
ready-made audience or preexisting fan base, the odds of anyone finding it are greatly reduced. 

A better approach is to upload the recorded MP3 file to a podcast hosting service. This has several 
advantages. First, it can be downloaded by anyone with Internet access. Second, since it is located on a 
remote server, bandwidth will not be an issue and excessive downloads will not impact a business website 
access speed. Third, free podcast hosting services will facilitate other aspects of podcasting infrastructure 
such as tagging, publicity and so forth. One of the best known podcasting hosting services is LibSyn. 
com. Another is HipCast.com (See Figure 4.17 and 4.18). 



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Beyond Blogging: RSS and Podcasting 




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Figure 4.17 LibSyn Site for Podcast Publishing 



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Publish Audio and Video Podcasts From the Cloud 

Hipcast lets you create and manage audio and video podcasts from the cloud, and post them to your blog. Never worry about keeping 
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Turn your blog into an Audio Blog or a Video Blog by linking it up 
with Hipcast and our Web Players. 

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Figure 4.18 HipCast Site for Podcast Publishing 



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Both LibSyn and HipCast allow a business to manage audio and video podcasts using cloud technology. 
The media can be posted to existing blogs or embedded in various websites. The MP3 files are stored 
and the services provide statistics including number of views. It is also possible to use these services to 
set up a podcasting series and take care of tagging and indexing. 

In general, the podcast publication (syndication) process will prompt the publisher for a podcast title, an 
episode number, an episode description, and tags to help search engines identify the topic areas. The file 
will be uploaded and a hyperlink will be provided together with options for other management features 
(including code snippets for embedding the podcast). 

Services such as LibSyn and HipCast will facilitate listing a podcast on iTunes and other podcast indexing 
and sales services. Tools for monetization are also available. Advertising options, methods for selling 
and paid subscriptions and other features are provided. 

After a podcast is posted to a host, additional publicity can be acquired by indexing your material with 
Feedburner. Hosting services like LibSyn and HipCast (and others like WordPress and Blogger) may 
perform this function automatically however it is good practice for a business to list its blogs and podcasts 
this way. FeedBurner is a company that was acquired by Google several years ago (see Figure 4.19). 




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Web 2.0 and Social Media for Business Beyond Blogging: RSS and Podcasting 



Google 



FeedBurner 

Hello, our name is still FeedBurner 

Welcome! It took us a while but we moved the whole neighborhood down to even/ last tree, beagle, and 
mailbox, to Google We hope you like it. 

Did you previously have an account on feed burner com? Haventyet moved your feeds 
to a Google Account? 

No problem. Your feeds are still distributing your new posts and they're just waiting for you to move them 
into your own Google Account. 

Claim your feeds now » 

Are you new to feeds, and FeedBurner? Great. Let's get you started. 





Create. Publish. Distribute! 



Figure 4.19 Feedburner Website 

The service permits a user to publish a blog or podcast URL. This makes the podcast available for 
subscription using any newsreader or feed reader. FeedBurner also prepares a podcast for submitting 
to iTunes and prepares a URL that can be used in marketing and distribution. A FeedBurner feed will 
take the form: 

http://feeds.feedburner.com/businesspodcastname 

Once the podcast has been 'burned', it can be submitted to iTunes. Again, services like LibSyn and HipCast 
will do this for a business automatically. However, Podcasts published directly on an organizations website 
can be submitted to iTunes. The process is straightforward: 

1. Open iTunes 

2. Login to the iTunes Store (the business or user will need an account) 

3. Click on 'Podcasts' (located on the left sidebar menu) 

4. Click 'Submit Podcast' 

5. Enter podcast feed URL 

6. Confirm details and submit 

7. Receive email upon acceptance 

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4.3.1 OPodcast Receivers (Clients) 

A podcast receiver or client is needed in order to find, subscribe, and listen to broadcasts. Software used 
for this purpose may also be referred to as a podcatcher. The first podcatcher, iPodder, was developed 
by Adam Curry (a former MTV videojockey) and Dave Winer, an early developer of RSS technology. 
Like more recent podcatchers, iPodder tracked podcast subscriptions and collected desired episodes 
when available. This software helped find podcasts, downloaded files and transferred these MP3 files to 
a computer or mobile listening device (Watson, 2008). Curry's iPodder software later was redeveloped 
into a program called Juice. This technology led to the current state of the art in podcatching including 
iTunes, Zune, and numerous others. 

In recent years, podcatching software has become indistinguishable from blog readers. This convergence 
of function has occurred as bandwidth has increased on the Web and most blogs contain audio and 
video components. 

The Website, Podcasting News maintains a website of podcatchers (See Figure 4.20 for a partial listing). 



Podcast Software (Clients) 

Podcast Sufhvare (clients) lei yuu subscribe lu and manaue puikaslii Fui uiealiny pudcaaLs. sue Hie fat uf pixIcusJny suflwaie 
Wiitduwra PutkdsL Suflwaie 

• @Poctder - a free podcast client designed for the visually impaired 

• AudtoSheSI - freeware MS Windows Cxplorer shell extension plugin which allows you to view and edit music file tags directly in Windows Explorer 

• BiteCast -freeware RSS/padcast reader thai supports both iPods and Microsoft Media PlaysFDrSure devices 

• BlogMatrix Sparks'! An all in one podcasting solution that lots you record. miK, share, publish, store and listen. 

• CITA RSS Aggregator - a RSS feed reader includes keyword alerts support for password login per-channel settings, proxy support, support for RSS enclosures (Podcasts} and a tool to 
remove persistent adverts from RSS feeds 

• CusluuiRtradai - a uusluriii/aLfa pudcasl tfieril that can ba "Lxiiiidud" lu match a website. 

• Doppler - Doppler is a podcast aggregator It's a tool to subscribe to RSS feeds which supply downloadable files. Doppler will go out and fetch the files enclosed in the RSS feed and will 
automatically add Lhemto your preferred media player 

• Golden bar - an easy to use old-school style podcast receiver; styled to look like an retro radio and designed to be as easy to use 

• HappyFiEh - free podcast client that will automatically sync podcastG to most mp3 players (and ipods too) 

• IPodderX - cross-platform media aggregator that handles podcasts. vtogs and other flies distributed using newsfeeds, 

• iTuiirs - Appls has annniincRrl support for listening tn pndcasts within ifiinfls 

• Juice - (formerly iPodder) Lets users select and download shows and music and to play whenever they want on their iPods, portable digital media players, or computers automatically 

• Newzee - Ateed reader that allows you to create your own news catalog from your preferred sources, that is automatically kept up to date with the latest headlines that are sent from the 
sources. Newzie features system tray notification (on feed updates), feed statistics, color coding, filtering, search, and support for enclosure (podcast) files. 

• NewzCrawler - news aggregator with built-in podcast receiver 

• nimiq - Nimiq is Windows podcasting client. Subscribe to a podcast and Nimiq automatically downloads audio and video enclosures. Subscribing is easy using the build in podcast 
directory browser. Download brttorrent files using the built-in bitfonent support 



Figure 4.20 Podcatcher List Maintained at PodcastingNews.com 
(http://www.podcastingnews.com/topics/Podcast Software.html) 



4.4 Conclusions 



Businesses can benefit from using new Web 2.0 tools to publish and broadcast content. Potential 
customers can learn about new products, coming business changes, and the people that run a company 
by subscribing to RSS feeds to receive blogs and podcasts. New technology has made it possible to create 
high quality online audio broadcasts using low cost equipment and software. This chapter has provided 
a look at the process of creating podcasts then syndicating and publishing this content via RSS feeds. 
This process has become easy due to services such as LibSyn, HipCast, and Feedburner. Chapter 5 will 
take the idea of podcasting one step further and see how video components are being added to make 
business messages even more personal and powerful. 



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4.5 Bibliography 

Airrest (2011). "All About Pop Filters." Abridged Forums. 
http://abridgedforums.com/showthread.php?tid=271 . 

Blue Mic (2012a). Snowball. Bluemic.com. http://www.bluemic.com/snowball/ 

Blue Mic (20 1 2b) . Snowball on iPad. Bluemic.com. http://blueblog.bluemic.com/2011/03/snowballonipad/ 

Eppler, M. and J. Mengis (2004). "The Concept of Information Overload: A Review of Literature from 
Organization Science, Accounting, Marketing, MIS, and Related Disciplines." The Information Society 
20(5). http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/01972240490507974 

Hiitola, B. (2010). "Recording an Interview with Skype using Audacity 1.3." Packtpub. 
http://www.packtpub.eom/article/recording-an-interview-with-skype-using-audacity-l.3 

King, D. (2004), "Audible Revolution." The Guardian (Feb 12). 
http://www.guardian.co.uk/media/2004/feb/12/broadcasting.digitalmedia 

Kyrnin, J. (2012). "Anatomy of an RSS File: How to Build an RSS File from Scratch." About.com Guide. 
http://webdesign.about.eom/od/rss/a/aa062707.htm 




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Web 2.0 and Social Media for Business Beyond Blogging: RSS and Podcasting 

Kyrnin, J. (2012). "What is RSS? RSS - Really Simple Syndication - What is it and How Do You Use It?" 
About.com Guide, http://webdesign.about.eom/od/rss/a/what is rss.htm 

McHaney R.W. (2011). The New Digital Shoreline: How Web 2.0 and Millennial Are Revolutionizing 
Higher Education. Stylus Publishing. 

Podcasting News (2010). "Setting Up a Home Studio." Podcasting News. 
http://www.podcastingnews.com/articles/Home Studio.html 

Podcast Software Review (2012). "2012 Best Podcast Software Comparisons and Reviews." Top Ten 
Reviews, http://podcast-software-review.toptenreviews.com/ 

Pollette, C. (2004). "How RSS Works." HowStuffWorks.com. 
http://computer.howstuffworks.com/internet/basics/rss.htm 

Watson, S. (2008). "How Podcasting Works." How Stuff Works. 
http://computer.howstuffworks.com/podcasting.htm 



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Web 2.0 and Social Media for Business Videocasting, Screencasting and Live Streaming 

5 Videocasting, Screencasting and 
Live Streaming 

Podcasting, blogs, and RSS are technologies rooted in the idea that broadcasts can be created and then 
made available to listeners at their convenience. Chapters 3 and 4 explored this idea in the realms of 
text and audio. New technology also makes it possible to add a video component. This chapter begins 
by looking at video podcasting or videocasting. 

Web 2.0 also can take the idea of broadcasting one step further and enable businesses to reach their 
customers and stakeholders in real time. The idea of synchronous communication on the web has captured 
the imagination of many developers who have introduced products ranging from live radio broadcasting 
software to television-like live streaming sites. Chapter 5 will investigate videocasting, screencasting, live 
audio streaming, and live video streaming. 

5.1 Videocasting 

Video has been used to augment audio podcasting by adding a visual element. Videocasting is sometimes 
called vodcasting or video podcasting. Since it uses the concept of RSS feeds and the same technology 
as podcasting, videocasting is more than posting an online video file. 

Videocasts can be created by small and large businesses (and individuals) with inexpensive digital video 
technology. High-quality visual media can be created with video cameras, various editing software and 
an internet connection. From a business perspective, a video podcast works the same as an audio one 
except that a video file is used. 

Video production can range in cost from nearly free (e.g. using a webcam or mobile phone camera 
to capture and post video) to extremely high budget. High end video production generally requires 
professional assistance and is beyond the scope of this book. If a business wants to use polished, 
professional video for advertising (either online or on television) it is best to contact local professionals 
and work with them to develop a budget based on the goals of the production. 

On the other end of the spectrum, it is possible for businesses and individuals to create and share streaming 
video at a very low cost. Digital video permeates the web with streaming videos found everywhere from 
YouTube to Facebook to other video sites such a Daily Motion and Vimeo. Digital video is quickly 
becoming a communication media of choice. 



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It is possible for nearly everyone to create a video for sharing but the quality of this video can vary 
As a business (even a small business), it is important to remember that the video quality reflects on 
customer perceptions. This being said, an organization can easily acquire a level of proficiency that 
enables video to be created and distributed in the form of videocasts and video blogs. When the video 
is distributed in the appropriate venue, expectations regarding the quality are impacted. For instance, 
potential customers viewing a video on YouTube do not expect it to achieve the quality and production 
levels of an advertisement being broadcast on national television. 

A few basic steps can be taken to develop a reasonable level of proficiency in video creation. As an 
example, video can be improved greatly through the editing process. Clips can be joined together, music 
and audio tracks can be added, transitions and title screens inserted - all of which can improve the 
viewing experience. The next sections will provide an overview of several key components to consider 
when videocasting. 



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5.1.1 Digital Video (DV) 

Two of the main components in creating a video podcast are the digital video camera and computer. 
About a decade ago, digital video (DV) emerged as the standard choice for most videographers (Bourne 
and Burstein, 2008). Digital video cameras are easily connected to computers using a High Speed USB 
2.0 interface (Fire Wire for slightly older cameras) and a single cable which transfers both image data 
and control signals. Digital video cameras have become relatively inexpensive and can be purchased at 
most stores where electronics are sold. A basic videocast with acceptable video can be developed with a 
wide range of cameras including the inexpensive and widely used Flip ( http://www.theflip.com ). A close 
competitor for the Flip is a Sanyo Xacti ( http://sanyo.com/xacti/ ). It is also possible to use a webcam or 
video recorder on a mobile device such as an iPhone or iPad. 

For a slightly larger budget, the pool of available video recording options becomes even larger. Canon, 
Panasonic, and Sony all offer a wide range of excellent video camcorders. The contenders in this highly 
evolving and volatile market release new and enhanced models frequently. The website Videomaker, 
provides up-to-date reviews and recommendations on a wide range of video cameras and equipment. 
This is an excellent resource to consult before making any purchase decisions (See Figure 5.1). 




MAGAZINE COMMUNITY DOWNLOADS VIDEO TRAINING 





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(http://www.videomaker.com/) 



Table 5.1 provides a general view of option categories available for video recording. 



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Videocasting, Screencasting and Live Streaming 



Digital Device 
Category 



Mobile 
(Camera, Phone, Tablet) 



Video Recorder 



DV/HD Recorders 




fib 





Depending on the mobile 
device and its storage 
capacity, a video ranging from 
a few minutes to a few hours 
can be recorded. The quality 
may not be as high but these 
devices are getting better and 
better all the time. The video 
captured with these devices 
can also be mixed in with 
studio quality video during 
the editing process. 



Digital video cameras are a 
low cost option to mobile 
devices. Often, the quality 
of these recordings is quite 
good. Features for editing, 
storage, and special effects 
can be found on many of 
these devices. 



DV and HD Cameras come in a 
variety of forms ranging in price 
and quality. Many professional 
videographers use DVand HD 
cameras and find that high quality 
footage can be easily captured. 



Some mobile devices can 
accommodate an external 
microphone and can stream 
video to cloud storage sites. 



The Flip video camera is 
low cost and provides high 
quality video and audio 
recording. This provides a 
good way to capture video 
that can be incorporated 
into videocasts. 



Using an external microphone can 
enhance audio quality. Tripods can 
also be used to increase stability 
for interviews and other shots. 
Extra cameras can be used to 
capture shots from multiple angles 
and then the result can be mixed 
for a more interesting videocast. 



Table 5.1 Video Recording Options 

Several features should be considered when deciding on the type of video recording device to use 
particularly when moving above the lowest range of recording devices. Many options are available and 
may be important depending on the video production goals but several key things should be considered. 
Among these are (Videomaker, 2012): 

Lens Size: This impacts the amount of light and image quality Generally, a larger lens will enhance light 
and provide a better quality image. 

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Video Pixels and Resolution: A pixel is the smallest addressable screen element in a video device. In 
other words, pixels are the dots that comprise an image. More pixels in an image result in a higher video 
resolution. Some cameras refer to lines of resolution instead. In either case, more lines or more pixels 
will provide a better video image. 

Audio Considerations: Digital camcorders come with built-in microphones. In many instances it 
becomes necessary to attach an external microphone for better sound quality or for recording interviews 
more effectively. When purchasing a camcorder, it is helpful to check for a mini- jack connector for an 
external microphone. Another option found on higher quality models is a 3-pin XLR audio connector. 

Image Stabilization: Stabilization keeps images from shaking and bouncing around when recording 
action sequences. Camcorders may offer either optical or electronic stabilization. In most cases optical 
stabilization is better and will result in better video. 



5.1 .2 High Definition Video (HDV) 

Digital video can also be captured in high definition format (HDV). HDV features can be found on many 
camcorders and provide a crisper output to fully exploit higher resolution output devices. Recording 
and editing HDV is much the same as standard DV recording and editing. From a process standpoint, 
the video will require more RAM, more storage space and a faster microprocessor. Most video editing 
software packages incorporate tools for HDV. 




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5.1.3 Audio and Lighting Considerations 

Lighting and sound are key factors when developing a videocast. Even the most basic talking head video 
with poor audio or dim lighting can decrease the viewers' experience or discourage them from returning 
for a future episode. 

Prior to filming a videocast for posting, it helps to take several trial runs and test out the mechanics 
of the videotaping session. Be sure to check background noise levels and ensure the intended audio is 
not impacted by environmental sound. Try recording people speaking from different angles, with and 
without the external microphone, and in group discussions. Determine what works well and what will 
not be acceptable. Try recording sound from a distance and see what audio quality results. In the end, 
knowing the recording equipments limits and capabilities will result in a better recording. Depending 
on the type of podcast being created, different microphones may be required. Table 5.3 summarizes. 



Microphone 
Type 


Use 


Comments 


Directional 


Mounts on camera 


Best used to record people speaking toward camera. Often used in 
interviews or when filming speakers from a closer distance. 


Handheld 


Placed on stand or 
held by speaker 


Good for interviewing groups of people. The microphone can be passed 
between participants to get better sound. Can also be mounted on a stand 
and placed in the center of a table for small group situations. 


Boundary 


Used to pick up sound 
in rooms and from a 
variety of sources 


This type of microphone is designed to pull sound in from a larger area. It 
is good for group discussions and for 'town meeting' situations. It may be 
placed in the center of a table for larger group discussions. 


Clip-on 


Attached to lapel 


This works well when recording a speech or for an interview when only the 
interviewee's voice recording will be used. 


Head-set 


Attached over ears 
and microphone is in 
front of mouth 


A headset is often used when recording voice-overs or video conferences. It 
combines the microphone with a headset to help reduce external noise for 
the person being recorded. 


Wireless 


Many uses 


Wireless microphones can take the form of the others discussed previously. 
Directional, boundary, handheld, head-set and clip-on mics may all be wireless. 
Often, wireless microphones use Bluetooth technology. These types of 
microphones are often easier to use but the range must be tested in advance. 



Table 5.3 Microphone Categories 

Often, voice recordings may take the form of voice-overs. This means that a recording is added to the 
video after it has been recorded. Voice-overs usually are recorded under more carefully controlled 
situations using good studio equipment. It is important that the levels used on voice-overs are matched 
to the recorded audio tracks so the listener does not experience bursts of louder or quieter audio during 
the videocast. 



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Lighting is also a key ingredient in a successful videocast. If the recording is being done in a controlled 
environment, professional lights can be purchased at a reasonable price. These lights help eliminate 
shadows and even out the video s appearance. Many companies provide low-cost, studio lighting solutions. 
Figure 5.2 provides an example from http://www.coollights.biz . 




Figure 5.2 Example of Low Cost Studio Lighting 

Most videocasts do not have the luxury of using professional lighting. This makes it more important to 
pay attention to the environment in which the recording will be done. For instance, check the existing 
lighting by doing a few trial video shots. Remember, the recorded video may look different than how 
the LCD screen appears. Several guidelines can improve the quality of a recording. First, try to avoid 
recording directly beneath a bright light that causes shadows to be cast over the speaker's face. Second, 
be sure the location is evenly lit with multiple light sources. Third, avoid locations where light levels 
may change rapidly or shadows may be occasionally cast. 

Lighting and sound do not always need to be perfect. Depending on the goal for the recording and the 
length of the clip being filmed, sometimes 'realistic' and imperfect can add to the overall effect. For 
more professional clips (e.g. training videos and corporate messages), having good lighting and sound 
becomes much more important. In these situations it becomes necessary to take extra time to fine-tune 
the environment and experiment with sample shots. A little preparation will go a long way to ensure a 
videocast becomes a quality product. 



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5.1.4 Computer Considerations 

Another consideration in digital video production is ensuring the computer system can manage and 
manipulate large amounts of data. In general, this means have a fast microprocessor (Intel i5 or \1 
processor and above) and plenty of RAM as well as sufficient hard disk storage space. Most video editing 
software is written to take advantage of features found on modern chips. The computer system needs at 
least 4GB of RAM to enable video editing. Much more RAM is preferable to enhance editing speed and 
speed up the video rendering process (transforming raw video data files into the viewable, distributable 
files). Table 5.4 provides various recommendations for computer hardware. 



Configuration 


RAM 


O/S 


Graphics Card 


Dedicated Storage 


Monitor 


Minimum 


4.0GB 


Win7 64-bit or MAC OS 


nVidia GTX470/570 


500GB 


17" LCD 


Midrange 


8.0GB 


Win 7 64-bit or MAC OS 


nVidia GTX470/570 


1TB 


Dual 20" LCD 


High End 


24GB 


Win 7 64 bit or MAC OS 


Quadro4000+ 


4TB 


Dual 20" LCD 



Table 5.4 Hardware Recommendations for Video Production (Bettan, 201 1) 




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5.1 .5 Preparing to Record a Videocast 

Preparation and planning are important for developing professional podcasts and videocasts. Several 
techniques can be employed to help with the process. Among these are shot lists and storyboards. Shot 
lists essentially are lists of all the different video (or audio) clips that are needed to complete a particular 
videocast. A storyboard can be likened to a detailed flow chart that shows how all the shots will be 
pieced together into a finished project. For short videocasts, these tools might not be needed. However, 
by practicing with them during simple projects, skills will be developed and complex projects will go 
smoother. 

Storyboards often are the starting point for a videocast. The storyboard provides a working plan with 
details specifying how a video director envisions the end product. Often, storyboards provide a venue 
for communication and enhance discussions of ways the videocast should be constructed. In general, it 
will document the visual elements, changes in screen perspectives, text elements, audio elements, music 
score and other aspects of a video production. A well- developed storyboard can reduce video capture 
and editing time as well as guarantee a videocasts goals are met (Wikipedia, 2012). 

Storyboards are used in many industries for planning advertising campaigns, creating commercials, 
developing presentations, creating television and video programming, and constructing videocasts. 
Storyboards can be used as proposals or presentations. They may be developed by hand, as sketches or 
drawings, or may be done with software packages (See Figure 5.3 for an example). Some developers use 
PowerPoint slides as a storyboard medium. Others may use a brown paper technique which involves taping 
sketches to large sheets of paper, rearranging the scenes during a group discussion and then eventually 
settling on a final format. Some developers even rely on a sequence of post-it notes for storyboarding. 
In some cases, the storyboard is used as guides to help develop a script for the speakers. 



if! StoryBoaid 

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Figure 5.3 Storyboarding Software Example 

Following completion of a storyboard, a shot list can be developed. The shot list will contain information 
about the way the shot is to be taken. The shot list also can provide a checklist for the filming crew and 
director. Information about each shot can be added to the video during editing to help keep track of 
the different film segments. Shots can range from close and personal to distant panoramas. Table 5.5 
provides various common options. 



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Shot Type 


Description 


Close Up 


A single person's face or object is used to fill the frame. When filming discussions, this 
can be used to capture emotion. 


Head Shot 


This is another name for a close up shot that is focused on a person's face. 


Point of View 


Creates a perspective of what a particular person can see. This shot is often filmed over 
the shoulder of a particular person. 


Participant View 


This is a variant of the point of view where the participant controls the video camera and 
films the elements from their own perspective and view. 


Vox Pop 


Vox pop comes from the Latin phrase voxpopuli which loosely translates to voice of the 
people. The idea is to create a short video answer to a question posed to many different 
people. The answers can be edited together into a random reflection of popular opinion. 


Video Journal 


A laptop with a webcam is used to record participant thoughts in real time. They appear 
to be sharing their innermost thoughts with the audience. 


Reverse Head Shot 


This is similar to a point of view shot but specifically is used to capture the response of 
a person that has just been asked a question. The shot is filmed over the shoulder of the 
interviewer. 


Midrange 


This shot is used to show one, two or a small group of speakers from a distance greater 
than used for a head shot. Often this is used to focus on the interchange between two 
people. 


Long Distance 


Shows the scene or entire group of people from a distance. This is effective in videocasts 
of group discussions to give the viewer a perspective of the setting. 


Tracking 


A shot that follows a person or object as they move. 


Pan 


A shot that slowly includes more and more of the background. 


Zoom 


A shot that slowly focuses in on a particular person or object. 


Time Lapse 


A shot of an entire activity is captured from the same perspective. Afterwards it is edited 
to 'speed' up time and give the appearance of a time lapse. This can be done with a 
webcam that takes pictures every couple of seconds. Time lapse software is available on 
the web. 



Table 5.5 Common Shots for Videocasts (Running, 2008) 

5.1 .6 Recording a Videocast 

Recording the videocast requires careful thought and attention. Many problems can emerge related to 
sound quality, lighting and equipment. Be sure to have a backup plan in case some equipment fails. 

In general, be ready to record early and take trial shots to test the location and the current setup. Be 
sure to have permission slips available for participants to sign. If the video may be posted online be sure 
this is made clear. During the recording process, be sure to periodically check the equipment to ensure 
it is recording properly. 

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5.1 .7 Video Software and Editing 

After shooting video using a camcorder or other device, the raw file is transferred to a computer over 
a USB (or Fire Wire) cable. The raw file needs to be edited and put into a form that is suitable for a 
videocast. This means adding title screens, music, commentary, and arranging the various shots in a 
meaningful way. The process of creating a polished, professional video is part science and part art. 
Becoming proficient at this can require time, training, and practice. Many good books and websites 
describe ways of developing outstanding video. 

Video editing software comes in many different categories and cost ranges. For tight budgets, good quality 
software is available. Both Windows and Apple OS generally provide free editing software. Windows 
provides MovieMaker and Apple computers usually come with iMovie. Both packages are powerful and 
relatively easy to use. Another low cost option may come with your video camera. Most digital video 
cameras include software with editing features. A third low cost option is to investigate online video 
editing services. Powerful tools are emerging and provide various services ranging from free to very 
expensive. Pixorial (see Figure 5.4) provides powerful software for creating finished video from raw 
clips with titles, transitions, and music clips. Creaza (see Figure 5.5) provides a free demo version and 
offers a suite of software with fully developed themes for creating video and multimedia presentations. 



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Other online services such as Kaltura provide a range of free and paid video editing, storage, streaming, 
and management options. Businesses can use this type of system to maintain a video library and utilize 
it in a variety of ways for current and future productions (see figure 5.6). 



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In addition to online solutions, a variety of professional quality video editing software is available. 
This software can range in price from low to very high. Table 5.6 provides examples of several popular 
packages. Most of these packages offer tutorials and provide information about the editing process and 
ways of rendering raw video into formats that can be streamed over the web as videocasts. 



Package 


Website 


Description 


Avid Studio 


http://www.avid.com/US/products/avid-studio 


Provides high end video editing solutions to 
Hollywood studios and others. Lower cost 
software versions also are available. 


Adobe 

Production 

Premium 


http://www.adobe.com/CreativeSuite 


High-performance video production software 
with a full range of editing and production tools. 
Often used by small businesses and educators. 
Part of the Adobe Creative Suite. 


Final Cut Pro 


http://www.apple.com/finalcutpro 


Video editing and production software from 
Apple. Provides a full range of editing options 
and media management tools. It is known for its 
speed and streamlined capabilities. 


Sony Vegas 


http://www.sonvcreativesoftware.com/ 
veqassoftware 


Provides a family of products for importing video, 
editing movies, and incorporating images into 
video production. A range of capabilities and 
prices are available. 



Table 5.6 Video Editing Software Examples 

The techniques used for editing and creating polished, professional videos take time and practice. Many 
online training sessions, tutorials and other educational resources are available to support the use of 
most software systems. It is also important to consider that different cameras and software packages 
use various video formats. When investing in editing software, it is important to ensure the package is 
compatible with the digital camera that you are planning to use. 

Another consideration is that the video will need to be stored. Typically, footage is recorded and placed 
into a media library. Clips from the library are used to construct a finished video which is then rendered 
into a format for viewers. The format will depend on a number of factors, including whether it is intended 
to be streamed over the web, burned to a DVD or shown in high definition format. Different versions 
can be created and then used in different venues. The original video that was shot will probably be in a 
different format from the finished production. The original video then will be kept for future projects. 

Most videos require some editing prior to uploading to a website. This is not always true and many video 
recorders (such as the Flip) are working to streamline the process. However, basic editing will generally 
require several activities. 



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First, the video will have to be transferred from recorder to computer. This means the computer will 
have to have adequate storage either on its hard drive or through access to an external hard drive. Video 
transfer may occur through a USB or Firework port, or it may be as simple as moving a memory stick 
from the camera to a computer. If a MiniDV tape was used for recording, then the video may need to 
be imported using a software feature in the editor. 

Once the video is on the computer, the clips will need to be imported into the editing softwares media 
library. Generally, this will be a drag and drop operation but could be more complicated if the video 
format between the camera and software are not compatible. In this case, a software utility program such 
as AVS Video Converter may be required (See Figure 5.7). Before purchasing this type of software, be 
sure to check if the cameras software or the editing programs already offer conversion options. 



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During the conversion process, the imported video may automatically split into individual clips. 
Otherwise, this may have to be done manually. Next, editing involves dragging clips into the video 
timeline, trimming the clips, and adding titles and images. Once the individual clips are set, transitions 
can be added to make the change between scenes appear smoother. It is important to be sparing 
with transitions and stick with simple fades or cuts. Spend time watching how scenes are changed 
in professional documentaries and movies and notice how transitions occur. Also, notice the typical 
length of clips before perspectives or viewing angles are changed. Table 5.7 provides suggested editing 
considerations that will make a video much more professional. After the editing process, the video should 
be rendered into a format that can be viewed on the Web (such as MP4 or Flash). 



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Technique 


Description 


Working with 
the Timeline 


Most editing software provides a zoom function. This means video clips, voiceovers, and photos can 
be added to the timeline and trimmed to appear smooth and perfectly timed to the viewer. Be sure 
to zoom in when working to put the finishing touches on a video production. This technique can 
also be used to eliminate small glitches or speaker mistakes. 


Voiceovers 


Audio files can either be imported or recorded directly (if this feature is supported by the editing 
software). Voiceovers can replace the audio track that was recorded with the video. This technique 
can provide the ability to add narration or to comment on the video scene being displayed. 


Title Screens 
and Overlays 


Most editing software offers tools for constructing title screens. These tools may offer a variety 
of colored backgrounds and images. It is also possible to create a title screen in a graphic design 
software package or photo editor and then import it as an image file. Title screens can also be 
developed as overlays. When using overlays, be sure the text is visible throughout the display 
period. Sometimes, the color of the video might change and this causes text to become difficult or 
impossible to read. 


Subtitles 


Screen overlays can be used to add subtitles to portions of a video. This is often done if the audio is 
difficult to understand or if the speaker is using a language unfamiliar to most viewers. A full set of 
subtitles can be added to a video with the video editor or specialized software. 


Introductory 
Clip 


If the videocast is part of a series, all episodes may have a common introduction which includes 
music and perhaps a professionally recorded voice and screen display. 


Music 


Music can enhance a videocast. Most frequently, music is played during title and introduction 
screens and again during the closing credits. Music also may be used during visual sequences or 
during scene changes. Music is available from a variety of websites. However, only a portion can be 
legally used. It is important to check the license agreements to determine if it can be used. Legal 
music for reuse can be found at: 

http://search.creativecommons.org/ 


Stock Video 
Clips and 
Photos 


Stock video and photos can enhance shot video. Public domain footage (e.g. Creative Commons 
License) can be found in a variety of locations. Likewise, royalty free footage can also be acquired. 
This type of footage requires a onetime payment for use. Any stock footage should be credited at 
the end of the video. 

Various well-known stock footage sites include: 

Moving Image Archive 

http://www.archive.orq/details/movies 

SpinXpress 

http://spinxpress.com/qetmedia 

Flickr 

http://www.flickr.com 

iStock 

http://www.istockphoto.com/video 


Opening or 
Closing Credits 


Most editor software will provide features for adding opening or closing credit screens in a variety 
of formats. Scrolling information or pages may be used. 



Table 5.7 Advanced Editing Techniques and Ideas 



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5.1 .8 Posting a Videocast 

Posting a videocast follows the same basic process as posting a podcast. One difference is that a videocast 
needs to be rendered into a viewable format that can be shared on the web. Most video editing software 
packages provide a wizard to make this easier. The wizard may be found under an option such as 'Export', 
'Create Movie or 'Render'. 

Once the file is rendered, it needs to be uploaded to a hosting service. Many video hosting services 
exist. YouTube is the most widely used of these. Others are shown in Table 5.8. In most cases, you will 
need to create an account and then upload the video. The video will be transformed into a Flash format 
and made available through a link or with code that can be used to embed the video in a blog or other 
website (See figure 5.8). The videocast can be publicized the same as a podcast or blog entry with RSS 
feed technology, tagging, and so forth (see Section 4.2). 



Website 


Site Image 


Web Address 


YouTube 


You(H39 


http://www.voutube.com/ 


DailyMotion 






http://www.dailvmotion.com/ 


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Vimeo 






http://vimeo.com/ 


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http://www.metacafe.com/ 


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Select files from your computer 



Figure 5.8 Uploading to YouTube 

5.2 Screencasting 

Screencasting is closely related to videocasting. The primary difference is the source of the video. 
Screencasting digitally captures a computer screen display and stores it in a video file (McHaney, 2011, 
p. 107). This means anything playing on the computer can be captured for editing and rebroadcast. 
Sophisticated screencasts may include a voice track narration that is added either during the screen 
capture process or afterward during the editing process. Many videocasts incorporate screen captures 
for a blended effect. Screencasts provide a useful method for demonstrating software usage and creating 
tutorials. Streaming video from webcams can be the source of screencasts as can examples of websites or 
any other software in action. Screencasts are easy to create, post online or add to a blog (Richardson, 2006, 
pp. 122-124). 



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Screencasting is essentially a content creation venue for Web 2.0 applications and has been enhanced, 
streamlined, and made more productive through a variety of tools. Popular Screencasting software 
packages are: Camtasia (see Figure 5.9), ScreenFlow, Snapz Pro X, and CamStudio. These tools focus on 
video capture of a computer's screen and recording the accompanying audio in digital form. 

Other tools take a more specific approach and enable the development of video presentations using tools 
such as PowerPoint as a base. For instance, Brainshark, a cloud-based software system, permits existing 
static content including PowerPoint slide shows to be transformed into narrated video presentations for 
online access. Additionally, Brainshark provides tracking software to ensure communication effectiveness 
and monitor use of the presentations. Brainshark offers products tailored for individuals, small office/ 
home office professionals, and larger enterprises. The single-user version of Brainsharks online video 
presentation developer can be used to create, share and track publicly accessible presentations for free 
(See Figure 5.10). 



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Animoto is another example of an online video production tool. Animoto's output falls somewhere 
between videocasting and screencasting with capabilities helpful to each area. This online toolset was 
developed with the mission of "helpfing] people better share their stories and express themselves through 
online media by innovating technologies in the field of video production." (Animoto, 2012) Animoto 
uses the latest in digital audio and video technologies to "bridge the gap between the high production 
value of film and television, and the more amateur feeling of most user-created videos and photo albums." 
(Animoto, 2012) It uses Cinematic Artificial Intelligence to emulate a human director and an editor to 
analyze and combine user-selected images, video clips and music to create a sophisticated output video 
(See Figure 5.11). 



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5.3 Live Streaming 

Live streaming video (and audio) is the idea of viewing and broadcasting real time audio and/or video 
over the Internet. Previously, we investigated videocasts and podcasts which are asynchronous broadcasts. 
This means the audio and video were prerecorded and posted for later viewing. Live streaming creates a 
real time or synchronous link between viewers and broadcasters. With this in mind, live streams can also 
be captured for asynchronous viewing later. Live streaming is the Web 2.0 equivalent of live television 
broadcasts except that most are done without expensive studio equipment and facilities. 



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5.3.1 Major Players in Live Streaming 

Live streaming has roots in several traditions and can be considered the convergence of technologies 
from different venues. For instance, popular live streaming sites, Stickam and Tinychat are descended 
from text and audio based chatroom technologies. Stickam provides a venue for a user to create a video 
chat room where their 'broadcast' forms the center feature of the room. Other users can join the room, 
view the broadcast, and interact with text, audio, and video feedback with the hosts permission. The 
rooms can be public, private or a mix based on criteria set by the host. Figure 5.1 1 shows a Stickam live 
video broadcast. 



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TinyChat uses a similar paradigm except the users have more choice regarding the video or videos they 
watch. While the host retains the ability to control who enters the room and broadcasts video, the users 
themselves select the video that will be the focus of their attention. Hosts can come and go and the room 
can remain intact. The users and host interact with synchronous text, audio and video. Both of these 
social broadcasting websites are primarily used by teenagers and young adults. Figure 5.12 illustrates. 



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Both Stickam and Tinychat have been widely adapted for social interaction. Both (but particularly 
Stickam) have also been used by businesses, not-for-profit organizations, and various companies to 
broadcast live events, stream presentations, publicize album releases, offer training/instruction, and 
provide question and answer venues for a variety of authors, musicians, and celebrities. Cutting edge 
businesses in entertainment and music industries make up a sizable share of commercial clients for these 
types of websites. Social live streaming is becoming more popular and is being recognized as a powerful 
new way to reach customers, potential customers, and other stakeholders. The website, Livestream (see 
Figure 3.13), takes a community approach and provides a way to get live events out on the web. 



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Live streaming techniques have also emerged in venues that emulate traditional television broadcasting. 
Websites such as Justin.TV and UStream enable users to create channels and broadcast shows reminiscent 
of public access cable television. A variety of tools and video enhancement support capabilities are 
continually being added to make the broadcasts more professional in appearance. For instance, HD 
digital video is supported on many live stream websites. UStream provides an embeddable video player 
and a broadcast schedule similar to a cable TV guide. UStream provides the ability to create live video 
programs that can be inserted into any blog or website with tools to archive and replay past programs. 
Figures 5.14 and 5.15 provide examples of Justin.TV and UStream. 



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Synchronous online video has become widely available and easy to incorporate into blogs, websites and 
specialty sites. This trend portends the rapidly approaching era of Internet television. Live video will gain 
popularity and become available to the masses. This means every business and every person will have the 
means to develop and broadcast their own video programs. YouCams (see Figure 5.16) provides tools for 
embedding live streaming into existing website structures and has been marketed as a webcam chat widget 
with capabilities for embedding video chat capabilities. YouCams works best from an established website 
with its preexisting audience and has a focus on smaller groups. Another feature offered by YouCams is 
its capability to enable groups to watch YouTube videos and see participant reactions in real time. 



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YouCams 7 ""' is an Instant Social Networking"* 1 chat site with many great 
features to enchance the chatting environment. Grab our code and 
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Figure 5. 16 YouCams Provides Tools for Existing Websites Among its Services 

Kyte.TV ( http://www.kyte.tv) is a direct competitor of YouCams but seeks to differentiate itself with 
added features for scheduled programming. For instance, Kyte permits a user to combine live feeds with 
existing video footage, images, music and other artifacts. Using a drag and drop interface, various media 
and transitions can be used to create a media rich broadcast which is scheduled for release on the Kyte 
website. Live text chat is added when the broadcast takes place. Kyte provides tools for customizing and 
specializing the look and feel of the media player to match an organizations branding. 



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Videocasting, Screencasting and Live Streaming 



5.3.2 Live Audio Streaming 

A variety of other tools are appearing in the young and dynamic field of live streaming. One of these, 
called BlogTalkRadio ( http://www.blogtalkradio.com ), seeks to emulate talk radio on a variety of subjects 
but uses blog technology (coupled with audio streaming and some video streaming - mostly on the 
advertisements) to provide live and asynchronous content (see Figure 5.17). A search on Google will 
locate dozens more services related to video and audio live streaming. 



The Home Based Business Radio Show 

by Tom Chenault 
foJ|ow I in Business 

Sat. April 7 2012 




The Home Based Business 
Radio Show 

On every Saturday Morning 

6 - 7 AM Pacific 

7 - 8 AM Mountain 

8 - 9 AM Central 

9 -10 AM Eastern 

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the show live. 



Play in your default player Download this episode Open in new window 

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Figure 5.17 BlogTalkRadio Provides Live Audio Streaming 

5.3.3 Typical Live Streaming Application Features 

Live streaming products provide a wide variety of features in addition to broadcasting video (and audio) 
over the web. Many of these features come from the predecessor of the technology or may have been 
added as a result of convergence in the area. The following list provides a look at many of these features 
(Pick, 2007): 

Live broadcasting (synchronous) - Stream live video from a user's video capture device. 

Scheduled broadcasting (asynchronous) - Allows video to be rebroadcast at a predetermined time. 
This means a digital video file becomes available after a particular time and date. 

On-demand broadcasting (asynchronous) - In this situation, users determine the time that they will 
view the broadcast. 



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Embedded live player - Allows the video producer to embed a customized video player displaying live 
video. Usually the embedded player will be inserted into an existing website or blog. This enables users 
to view video from the current site so they will not have to move to another website. 

Embedded recorded player - Permits the video producer to embed a customized video player displaying 
pre-recorded or archived video. Usually the embedded player will be inserted into an existing website 
or blog. This enables users to view video from the current site so they will not have to move to another 
website. 

Multiple participants - Allows more than one broadcaster to participate in a video presentation session. 
This might mean that one video feed is transferred between various broadcasters or that multiple 
broadcasts are streamed at the same time. 

Integrated text messages - Provides the facility for viewers to interact with broadcasters or each other 
via text messages typed into a common interface during a video broadcast. This allows viewers to hold 
a text discussion during a live or recorded broadcast. 

Integrated audio chat - Provides the facility for viewers to interact with broadcasters or each other via 
audio chat spoken during a video broadcast. This allows viewers to hold an audio discussion during a 
live or recorded broadcast. 






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Integrated video chat - Provides the facility for viewers to interact with broadcasters or each other 
via video chat during a video broadcast. This enables viewers to have a rich discussion during a live or 
recorded broadcast. 

Webcam capture - Some live streaming websites provide the capability of direct video capture. In other 
words, users can stream or record video clips from either a built-in or external webcam. The video may 
be presented live or stored for later viewing. 

Audio capture - The capability of direct audio capture is a feature on some live streaming websites. An 
internal or external microphone can be used to stream or record audio. The soundtrack may be presented 
live or stored for later listening. 

Mobile device capture - Another feature of some live streaming websites includes the capture of video 
or still photos from a mobile smart device. With this technology, users can stream or record video clips 
from their phone, pad or other device. The photos, audio, or video may be presented live or stored for 
later viewing. 

Import video - Many live streaming sites have the capability of importing existing video. The imported 
video might come from video sharing websites such as YouTube or Vimeo. Alternately, it may be imported 
from a computer, mobile device or hard drive. The imported video can be made available for later viewing 
or can be imported into a live broadcast where voiceovers or text can be added. 

Import digital images - Photographs, illustrations, graphics and other artifacts can be uploaded or 
pulled from other websites for use in live streaming. 

Import audio tracks - Music and other audio tracks often can be acquired from websites, computers, 
mobile devices or storage devices. These tracks can be broadcast directly or mixed into a broadcast. 

Titles and transitions - Live streaming sites often contain tools for adding header screens and building 
transitions for broadcasts or stored video footage. 



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Web 2.0 and Social Media for Business Videocasting, Screencasting and Live Streaming 

5.4 Conclusions 

Chapter 5 provided a look at how Web 2.0 applications have begun to move the power of live audio and 
video broadcasting into the hands of businesses and individuals. The idea allows businesses to reach 
their customers and stakeholders in real time and permits archived copies to be reused later. The world 
of synchronous communication on the web has captured the imagination of many innovators and a 
wide variety of services have emerged from diverse backgrounds. Convergence in this area is moving 
the best facets of these services into more common platforms with components derived from chatrooms, 
radio, television, blogs, video sharing sites and other traditions. Web 2.0 broadcasts range from people 
speaking into their webcams to sophisticated digital productions that are beginning to rival Hollywood 
capabilities. Businesses now have the opportunity to personalize their communications and operate at 
different levels to achieve their goals and objectives. 

5.5 Bibliography 

Animoto (2012). About The Company. Animoto Website, http://animoto.com/about/ 

Bourne, J. and D. Burstein (2008). Web Video: Making It Great, Getting It Noticed. Peachpit Press. 

Bettan, Gary (2011). Videoguys' System Recommendations for Video Editing. 

http://www.videoguys.eom/Guide/E/ 

Videoguys+System+recommendations+for+Video+Editing/0x4aebb06ba071d2b6a2cd784ce243a6c6.aspx 

McHaney, R.W. (2011 J. The New Digital Shoreline: How Web 2.0 and Millennials Are Revolutionizing 
Higher Education. Stylus Publishing. 

Pick, M. (2007). Broadcast Yourself Live On The Web: Best Tools To Create Your Own Live Web TV - A 
Mini- Guide. Master New Media, http://www.masternewmedia.org/video internet television/live-video- 
streaming/broadcast-yourself-live-with-video-streaming-20070424.htm#ixzzlrlbsCoW5 

Richardon, W. (2006). Blogs, Wikis, Podcasts and other Power Web Tools for the Classroom. Corwin Press. 
Thousand Oaks, CA. 

Running, J. (2008). How To Make A Time-Lapse Video. Tucows.com. 
http://www.tucows.com/article/2058 

Videomaker (2012). Digital Camcorder Reviews. Product Reviews. 
http://www.videomaker.com/learn/product-reviews/digital-camcorder-reviews/ 

Video Share (2012). Video Share Top Ten Reviews, http://video-share-review.toptenreviews.com/ 

Wikipedia (2012). Storyboard. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Storyboard 



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6 Wikis and Other Collaborative 
Documents 



Web 2.0 concepts may have emerged first with the advent of Wikis. The word Wiki was derived from the 
Hawaiian language and means quick. Wikis now represent a class of applications which includes tools for 
collaboratively developing a variety of documents, and the associated tools to facilitate multiple authoring. 

In general, wikis and other document sites provide features to enable users to co-create and edit content, 
develop topics, link pages, add tags, and cross reference material. In fact, many of the features explored 
with blogs are also available to wikis. Most collaborative documents are inherently flexible and can be 
used for displaying content on a webpage with the added bonus of allowing content to be dynamically 
updated using only a web browser (McHaney, 2009; McHaney, 2011 p.110-114). 

Most collaborative documents eventually serve as knowledge repositories and are successfully used in 
business, personal and academic settings. Wikipedia is the best known and most popular wiki. It is a 
massive online encyclopedia with more than twenty-seven million pages, 17 million users, and 260 
languages (see Figure 6.1). 

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Wikis and Other Collaborative Documents 



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From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia 

Wilson Sawyer (1917-1979) was an American composer, arranger and musician. Bom in Traverse City. Michigan, 
he showed musical talent at an early age and studied music at the University of Michigan. Sawyer conducted the 
University's Women's Glee Club and led the Bill Sawyer Orchestra, a big band that was featured on WMAQ's "Fitch 
Summer Bandwagon" on July 7, 1940. He composed several arrangements of choral works; popular songs for Pern/ 
Como. Fred Waring and Ray Eberle; music for the "Alaskan Stampede " a Leo Seltzer produced "musical 
extravaganza on ice" c. 1944. and an opera based on Mark Twain's Tom Sawyer. He is best known for composing 
Symphony No. 1. known as the Alaskan Symphony, at Gypsy Trail. Carmel, New York in 1945. [l - The work includes 
text from the "Spell of the Yukon" by Robert W. Sen/ice sung by a baritone soloist in the third movement, as well as 
other thematic inspirations drawn from his study of the climate, topography and history of the then-territory The 
Alaskan Symphony was first performed in December of 1945 by the American Symphony Orchestra and was 
broadcast across the United States and to overseas armed services at that time. Wilson Sawyer conducted the 
piece and Gov. Ernest Gruening of Alaska was guest speaker on the program. At Gruening's request, the original 
score was placed in the Alaskan Museum of Natural History [Alaska Historical Library and Museum] in Juneau. 
Alaska. In 1960, Sawyer's wife Maxine was diagnosed with spinal cancer and they moved to Pawling. New York 
where he operated a chicken farm and laundromat He continued to compose. The Alaskan Symphony was 
performed by the Hudson Valley Philharmonic in 1975 with Sawyer again conducting even though he had recently 
suffered a stroke. Sawyer revised the Symphony in 1977. making substantial cuts to the fourth movement among 
other edits. The revised Alaskan Symphony was premiered by the Juneau Symphony on June 14, 2008. conducted 
by music director Kyle Wiley Pickett. 



References 



[edit] 



1. A "MS 210: Alaskan Symphony Collection, 1945-1976 Alaska State Library"^. Retrieved 2008-06-24. 



Figure 6.1 Example Article from Wikipedia 

Wikis and collaborative documents can be set up using a variety of user rights. For instance, some 
applications may offer open viewing and editing to everyone. Public wikis such as Wikipedia fall into 
this category. Other applications may limit access to particular editors and selected readers. This is called 
a private wiki or collaborative document. Semi-public applications such as these may require users to 
register and obtain a user name and password prior to access. 

Collaborative documents may display as text, word processing interfaces, spreadsheets, or other pallets 
specific to the application. Chapter 6 will explore wikis and other collaborative document technologies 
and will provide a perspective on how these applications can be used in business. 

6.1 Wikis 

As stated earlier, wikis are flexible, collaborative documents and can display dynamic web content with 
add-ins including digital photos, videos, audio clips, PowerPoint slides, PDF documents, flash animations, 
and other artifacts (McHaney, 2012). Mature wikis have become long-term knowledge repositories 
and have been successfully used in private, personal, corporate and educational settings (Hai-Jew and 
McHaney, 2010; McHaney, 2009; Phillipson, 2008). Additionally, wikis have been used to support learning 
communities (Gilbert, Chen and Sabol, 2008). 



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As users change a page, a history record is created and permits vandalism, errors, or mistake to be 
removed with little effort. The latest version of a page is displayed as the current text for the page and 
the authorship of each piece will be recorded (Hai-Jew and McHaney, 2010; McHaney 2009). In spite of 
maintaining history records and supplying tools associated with rolling back unwanted changes, critics 
argue that wikis, particularly public ones, are likely to be vandalized and will require continual monitoring 
and supervision. While, this may be true in some instances, a number of automated monitoring tools 
and community developed software can help protect content. 

Wikis are vandalized for a variety of reasons. One category is malicious damage. It may be done for fun 
by hackers or in a more organized way to systematically determine how quickly the changes are undone. 
This provides information to the perpetrators so they will know how long more substantial changes will 
be left alone. 

Another form of vandalism takes the form of posting advertising pages. In this instance, the wiki represents 
free server space where agents can post material for themselves or their clients. This is probably the 
most common type of damage to many wikis and may be caused by individuals or through the use of 
automated programs (McHaney, 2012). If Mediawiki was used to develop the wiki, an add-in called The 
SpamBlacklist can help prevent these entries. This add-in provides a shared list of perpetrators. 

More vandalism may take the form of embedded links. The vandal will add links to reference lists, 
article bodies, and other locations that link back to their sites or their clients' sites. Most have a goal of 
raising their search engine ranks. Having more links back to a site from an established location will help 
achieve this goal. A similar approach is to embed particular keywords. This can also help raise the search 
engine awareness of particular sites. Embedded links and keywords may be added by automated bots or 
individual hackers. Table 6.1 provides a summary of vandalism types found on many wikis. Figure 6.2 
provides a vandalized page example from ELATEwiki.org. 



Category 


Description 


Malicious Damage 


Done to test the water and determine response time for wiki repair 


Posting Advertising Pages 


Takes advantage of free web server space and provides awareness of products or services 


Embedding Links 


Raises ranking in search engines 


Embedding Keywords 


Raises ranking in search engines and provides awareness of products or services 



Table 6.1 Wiki Vandalism Types (McHaney, 201 2) 



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View source 



Page 



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Figure 6.2 Example of Vandalism Posted on a Wiki 

6.1 .2 Examples of Wiki Use 

Wikis are used in business and in many other areas. Some fields like medicine or the sciences require 
high editorial standards to ensure posted material is high quality and accurate. One method used to 
ensure high standards is the expert-moderated approach (Barsky and Giustini, 201 1). New content added 
to a wiki is reviewed by an expert or panel of experts before it becomes public. In other areas, standards 
may be less strict and oversight occurs by volunteers who read the material as it changes and is added 
to the wiki. Wikipedia uses this method for its page development. 

In businesses, wikis are being used in a variety of different ways. For instance, internal documents may 
be developed collaboratively for recording procedures and for creating a knowledge repository that 
remains even if skilled employees leave. American Express used wiki technology to develop an executive 
travel wiki which enabled employees to share hints about corporate travel and the procedures required 
to receive reimbursement for expenses. Other organizations use wikis as internal documentation for 
in-house systems and software applications. Still others promote the use of wikis by customers to help 
produce documentation of products or software. According to researchers Majchrzak, Wagner and Yates 
(2006), corporate wiki users are either synthesizers or adders. Synthesizers provide information needed 
by others in an organization and adders enter information needed to accomplish their jobs. 

In the academic world, wikis have been used for collaborative grant writing, academic unit documentation, 
committee reports and work, strategic planning documentation, and as knowledge repositories. Wikis 
also are popular in the classroom and have been used by teachers to develop collaborative writing 
projects for students. 

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Still other applications can be found in government and legal areas. Various government agencies use 
wikis to document internal procedures and for public reporting. Courts and other entities have used 
wikis to post rules and to enable constituents to post and answer questions. Wikilndex (see Figure 6.3) 
is a wiki that provides a list of wiki communities in a wide range of areas. 



Wi&ilndex 




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6.2 Wiki Software 

A number of different software systems are used to develop wiki applications. The most popular is 
MediaWiki, a free web-based software application developed by Wikimedia Foundation and a large 
community of users. MediaWiki is used by Wikipedia and thousands of other websites. It was developed 
in the PHP programming language and relies heavily on a backend database system (most commonly 
MySQL). MediaWiki was first released in 2002 and coincided with the publication of Wikipedia. Since 
that time more than 700 configuration settings, 600 automated tools, and 1,800 extensions have been 
added. MediaWiki supports a large number of languages, website configurations, edit tracking, and talk 
pages (MediaWiki, 2012). It is licensed under the GNU General Public License (GPL). 

A drawback to MediaWiki is that it is generally internally hosted (although other options do exist). This 
means that an organization will need to have computing hardware and software in-house, and will need 
to have the expertise to maintain the software as new releases and upgrades appear. The same dilemma 
exists for blog software (See Section 2.2). For small businesses, this might represent a challenge. But 
for businesses with an existing IT department and infrastructure, this would not be a problem because 
WikiMedia or other hosted wiki software is relatively stable and easy to install and use. Internally hosting 
a wiki provides a business with more flexibility and freedom. It also ensures the organization possesses 
and holds the data and information associated with the Website. It can be more easily integrated with the 
business Website and it allows the organization to develop an internal expertise with the administration 
of a wiki. Table 6.2 provides examples of software that can be acquired for internally hosted wiki sites. 



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Wikis and Other Collaborative Documents 



Software 


Website 


Comments 


MediaWiki 


http://www.mediawiki.org/ 

MediaWiki 




This is the most popular wiki platform on the web. 
Thousands of wikis and general websites use it 
because it offers many features and add-ins and 
extensions are available. In addition to being self- 
hosted, wikis can use hosting services directly or 
through third-party websites such as Siteground.com. 
MediaWiki uses PHP and is available in numerous 
languages. It is also supported by a large number of 
online communities. 




TikiWiki 


http://tiki.org/ 

^^ cms 

groupware 


TikiWiki CMS Groupware is wiki software and other 
tools. It is an open-source Content Management 
System (CMS) and Groupware software system useful 
for general websites, portals, Intranets and Extranets. 
It includes collaborative tools generally associated 
with wikis and the ability to function in international 
settings. TikiWiki offers the ability to extend the 
software. Major features include articles, forums, 
newsletters, blogs, a file/image gallery, Wiki, drawing 
applet, trackers, a directory, polls/surveys and quizzes, 
a FAQ, chat, a banner management system, Webmail, 
a calendar, Ephemerides, maps, charts, Mobile Tiki 
(PDA and WAP access), RSS feeds, a category system, 
a theme control center, workflow, live support, 
Shoutbox, ACLs, and more (Tiki.org, 2012). 


DokuWiki 


http://www.dokuwiki.orq/ 

DokuWiki 


DokuWiki is a standards-compliant, user-friendly 
Wiki, mainly aimed at creating documentation. 
It is specifically designed for developer teams, 
workgroups and small companies. It has a simple but 
powerful syntax to ensure data files remain readable 
outside the Wiki. All data is stored in plain text files 
so no database is required. It may be the best choice 
for a small or medium company seeking to develop 
collaborative internal documentation. It supports 
team and workgroup interaction. Like TikiWiki and 
MediaWiki, it is written in PHP. 



Table 6.2 Self-Hosted Wiki Platforms 



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6.2.1 Wiki Hosting Services 

Businesses or individuals may choose to host their wikis on third-party websites. As was the case for blog 
hosting, both startup businesses closely watching costs and small businesses with limited IT resources 
may favor this approach. Small private practices (e.g. law firms, veterinarians or physicians) may also 
find this service advantageous. 

Advantages of hosting services include that wiki software upgrades are managed, help lines and customer 
support service are available, search engine optimization (SEO) is included and installation/ initial setup 
may be streamlined. Disadvantages may include loss of control of business data, uncertainty regarding 
the hosts future status, and difficulty with specialty needs. 

Hosted wikis can be placed on free or low cost websites. As with blogs, completely free services generally 
do not offer unique domain names. This means the wiki may have a name containing part of the service 
name. Table 6.3 provides example free and low cost wiki sites. 



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Software 


Website 


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http://www.wikihost.orq/ 


This free wiki site provides hosting on their website for 
those wishing to collaborate with coworkers, friends 
or other community members. They provide tools to 
publish content, share thoughts and find people with 
similar interests. The wikis hosted here have URLs that 
are extensions oftheWikihost.org domain name. For 
instance, the John Muir Trail wiki can be found at: 

http://www.wikihost.orq/w/jmt 






http://www.wikidot.com/ 


Wikidot provides free and low cost wiki space for 
business, personal and education uses. Wikidot 
provides user friendly tools to create collaborative 
websites without needing to know HTML, PHP, 
JavaScript or other languages. By default, a user gets a 
domain name like this (for a class called MANGT366): 

http://manqt366.wikidot.com 

The site can be customized. Wikidot can be used 
successfully by both inexperienced and experienced 
individuals. 




wikijkiai«m 










http://wikkii.com/ 


Wikkii provides fully-featured, free hosting for wikis. 
This site uses MediaWiki software, which is used 
by Wikipedia. Most of the sites on this wiki host 
are related to hobby and popular culture. But it is 
robust and since it uses MediaWiki as a development 
language, all the communities and features of that 
powerful tool are available. Wikii sites are given names 
like this one for the popular Gintama anime series: 

http://gintama.wikkii.net. 




Wikkii 

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6.2.2 Other Wiki Hosting Options 

Small businesses and startups may also opt for a general hosting company that offers wiki installations for 
a reasonable cost. Many of these companies exist and will typically bundle a domain name registration 
with a wiki and other hosting. This means an organization can get its desired name as a URL together with 
wiki development tools and support for a yearly fee. Table 6.4 provides several examples of companies 
offering these low cost services. 



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Wikis and Other Collaborative Documents 



Software 



Website 



Comments 



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http://www.siteground.com/wiki- 
hostinq.htm 



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TikiWiki hosting capabilities. Many other general 
hosting options also are offered. 




http://www.2by2host.com/ 
mediawiki-hosting.html 



JBY2H0ST.COM 



2By2 provides MediaWiki help with 24/7/365 tech 
support. It offers expert developers and has servers 
optimized for MediaWiki installations. Purchase of a 
hosting plan includes free installation of MediaWiki. 



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http://www.hostgator.com/apps/ 
wiki-hosting.shtml 



HostGator provides Mediawiki hosting among its 
comprehensive web hosting services. HostGator 
wikis support user generated content and 
knowledge bases. MediaWiki, the free wiki software 
behind Wikipedia, is hosted on this website. 



Table 6.4 Other Wiki Hosting Options 

6.3 Building a Wiki 

After determining a wiki's focus and general content, building it successfully requires several important 
initial considerations. Among these are: (1) worldview definition; (2) paradigm development; (3) 
technological considerations; (4) content ontology; (5) risk assessment; and, (6) sustainability planning. 
Even the most simple wiki construction requires definition in several of these areas. 

6.3.1 Wiki's Worldview 

A wikis worldview is essentially a decision regarding how the content will be viewed, developed, and 
used by its community Choices will determine if it is private, semi-private or completely open. Most 
commonly, wikis use a Web 2.0 worldview to facilitate sharing intellectual resources and encourage 
users to contribute new material. The premise is the users understand their contributions will remain 
available with a Creative Commons license. This ensures the wiki is used as a communal construction 
of knowledge, online discussion, and reflection for an interacting group of users. The net result can be 
a synergistic increase in group learning rather than an individual quest for knowledge (Notari, 2006; 
Seitzinger, 2006; Parker and Chao, 2007). 

6.3.2 Paradigm Development 

A successful wiki, at least for a public one, needs to have a unifying theme that makes its purpose clear 
to its potential community of users. This means engaging in a paradigm development that includes 
brainstorming potential content, developing an identity, and determining a look and feel for the website. 
Often, creating graphics and a determining a color scheme for the site is required. The wiki will require 
a name and, if possible, the acquisition of a related domain name. Figure 6.4 provides a look at the 
graphics developed for ELATEwiki.org. 

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Wikis and Other Collaborative Documents 



elate *i 




Figure 6.4 Graphics for ELATEwiki 

6.3.3 Technological Considerations 

Another key consideration in the implementation of a wiki involves selecting hardware, software, and 
hosting options. An implementation team will need to research and discuss these options to ensure a 
choice is made that balances cost, speed, features, skill levels, and sustainability. Various wiki software and 
hardware configurations can be proposed and pros/cons compared before reaching an implementation 
decision. A determination of whether to use external or internal hosting will be required (as discussed 
in section 6.2). This decision will need to consider expected server load, multimedia content inclusions, 
and future capabilities. 

6.3.4 Content Ontology 

The idea of constructing a wiki with no predetermined structure and allowing users to build it organically 
is tempting. However, the reality of letting a wiki evolve without building any existing framework or 
preconceived branches is unlikely to succeed. Users need to have a general idea of where and what to 
contribute and providing an initial content ontology can help get the site started. Organic growth can 
occur as new ideas and additions are generated. 

According to Martin Hepp, Katharina Siorpaes, and Daniel Bachlechner (2007), "Ontologies are unambiguous 
representations of concepts, relationships between concepts (such as a hierarchy), ontologically significant 
individuals, and axioms." A successful, initial ontology should be developed to provide new users with a 
sense of order and a comfortable way to tag their content contributions and organize their material. The 
initial ontology is a simple starting point that users can expand into a more complex structure as the site 
grows and evolves. Without an initial ontology, potential users might fail to develop an initial contribution 
and would not see a way to add value to the site. They would not understand how to connect, display, or 
categorize their entries (McHaney, 2009). 



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A wiki s ontology can be implemented with an overall macro structure and an initial set of subject tags. This 
provides an overall, high-level categorization of topics. This macro structure groups content into logical 
areas where contributions can be added. In a sense, the macro structure can be imagined as categories. 
Wiki tags can be used to create these categories and then a page structure can be developed to list all 
the pages for each area. Within each category, individual pages and additional tags can be added. Use 
of multiple tags allows a particular page to be a member of multiple categories. For more discussion on 
ontology and tagging see McHaney (2009). 

6.3.5 Risk Assessment 

Wikis are inherently subject to a variety of risks. Many of these are associated with oversight and quality. 
A wiki is intended to attract users and develop a community that will ensure accuracy of content and 
a high level of quality. This may not always be the case, particularly when a wiki is started. In order 
to minimize risks and reduce problems associated with content accuracy, several considerations are 
needed. A disclaimer statement might be required for public wikis and specific, human oversight might 
be initially needed. Section 6.1 provides additional information about vandalism and solutions for 
minimizing its impact. 

6.3.6 Sustainability 

A wiki is intended to attract users and develop a sense of community that will enforce accuracy and 
ensure quality. However, this can be difficult to achieve. Clay Shirky (2008), in Here Comes Everybody: 
The Power of Organizing without Organizations, provides a helpful perspective. He suggests a social tool 
such as a wiki needs to achieve a balance between promise, tools, and bargain. When the correct balance 
is achieved, a community will emerge and sustainability will result. 

6.4 Zoho Wiki Example 

Zoho Corporation was founded under the name of AdventNet in 1996 by Sridhar Vembu. Although 
originally focused on telecom equipment vendors, by 2005 it had launched Zoho Office Suite featuring 
a web based word processor. Over the next few years it added products such as online spreadsheets, 
calendars, databases, wikis and other business software. 

Zoho Wiki is a free online tool that can be used to create collaborative websites. Zoho wiki suggests 
this application is ideal for collaborative web portals, knowledgebases, intranets, team documents, and 
education. Zoho Wiki can be found at http://www.zoho.com/wiki/ (see Figure 6.5). 



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Wikis and Other Collaborative Documents 



m& I Wiki 



Zoho Home Blogs Forums About Us Contact Us 



Online Portals for Group Collaboration & Knowledge Sharing 



From Enterprise Intranets to Team Portals and Documentation 
Sites, Create collaborative portals for effective 
knowledge management. 



Create searchable, centralized information 
repository for easy organizational access. 

Create private or public workspaces 

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After signing up for a free account, users will see the screen shown in Figure 6.6. A wiki is created by 
pressing the "New Wiki" button. See Figure 6.7. 



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Wikis and Other Collaborative Documents 





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By default, a homepage is created (see Figure 6.8). By clicking on the link, content can be added to the 
page as well as descriptive tags. Figure 6.9 shows the homepage after it was edited to add a paragraph 
and 2 tags. 



3 Site Home ^ Wiki Dashboard 


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Figure 6.8 Zoho Wiki Dashboard 



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Web 2.0 and Social Media for Business Wikis and Other Collaborative Documents 



wikichapter's Wiki 



t £ Site Home v HcmeCage 



HomePage 

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Zuliu Curuu ration was founded under the name of AdvenlNeL in 1996 by Sridhdi Vcmbu. Allhuuyh unyiually focused u-ri Lefenjni equipment vendors, by 
2UU5 it had launched Zoho Office buite featuring a web based word processor. Over the next few years it added products such as online spreadsheets, 
calendars, databases, wikis and other business software, 



Figure 6.9 Homepage after Adding Content and Tags 

Additional pages can be added, together with tags and more content. Pages can be nested into categories. 
Collaborators can be invited and the wiki can become the home of a repository of co-created documents 
and knowledge. 

6.5 Other Collaborative Documents 

Wikis were among the first collaborative, online document systems. The core concepts of wikis, including 
co-creating content, tracking history and providing rollback features, are now commonly used with other 
families of online applications. Among these, word processors, databases, spreadsheets, calendars, and 
many others have become popular. 

An organization wishing to explore options for collaborative document creation will find a vast array 
of options ranging from specialty software focusing on a particular area (such as Writeboard which is 
like a mini-wiki - see Figure 6.10) to the future Microsoft's office application software (see Figure 6.11). 



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Wikis and Other Collaborative Documents 



*5\ Writeboard 



Write, share, revise, compare. 

Writeboards are sharable, web-based text documents that let you save 

every edit, roll back to any version, and easily compare changes. 

Use Writeboard to write solo or collaborate with others. 



Create a writeboard 

It's fast and completely free. Just 3 
fields and you're done. Here we go... 



1. Name the writeboard 



Ex! "New hire memo" or "Chapter 4" 

2. Assign it a password 

Only you or people with this password can 
access this write hoard. 

3. Enter your email address 



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> Example uses 
Writeboard makes it easy to... 

O Write without fear of losing or overwriting a good idea 
fi Compare different versions of a document 
Q Collaborate with colleagues on copy, proposals, memos, etc. 
<5 Subscribe to documents via RSS and be notified of changes 
© Keep your writings organized with Backpack integration 

Writeboard is perfect for... 

$ Authors, journalists, PR folks, editors, and publishers 
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Letter writers, songwriters, poets, comedians, creatives 
O Students, professors, and groups collaborating on a paper 

...and plenty more! Writeboard is great for personal and business 
use ( check out some example uses ). Read more about Writeboard 
below or create a free writeboard at left. 



Figure 6.10 Writeboard Creates Fast Collaborative Documents 
_ Micrcsofr 

Da.Off ice 365 

Figure 6.1 1 Microsoft Mainstreams Collaborative Application Software 

Table 6.5 provides several example contenders in the online, collaborative application software marketplace. 



Software 


Website 


Comments 


Go ;gle 

Docs 


http://docs.qooqle.com/ 
http://drive.qooqle.com/ 


Google provides a powerful suite of application software 
with full, collaborative capabilities. Google docs include 
a word processor, spreadsheet, calendar, and more. It is 
lacking a database component. Google Docs currently 
are being redeployed as Google Drive. This is an online 
location where a user can create new documents, 
spreadsheets and presentations 


Work ■ Online 


http://www.zoho.com/ 


Zoho, based in California, is a leader among free and low- 
cost, collaborative, online office suite software. 



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Web 2.0 and Social Media for Business 



Wikis and Other Collaborative Documents 



Software 


Website 


Comments 


^ Microsoft' 

Da.Office 365 


http://www.microsoft.com/ 
offlce365 


Office 365 is Microsoft's cloud-based, collaborative version 
of MS-Office poised to become its new flagship business 
software suite. 




http://www.th in kfree.com 


ThinkFree Office is an MS Office-compatible productivity 
suite which can be used to collaborate online. It provides 
Write, Calc, and Show which are a word processor, 
spreadsheet, and presentation software system. ThinkFree is 
from the Korean company Hancom, Inc. established in 1990. 


■■ 



Table 6.5 Free or Low Cost Third-Party Hosted Wiki Providers 

6.6 Conclusions 

Web 2.0 collaborative document concepts emerged and took shape with the advent of wikis. This class 
of applications includes tools for co-developing documents and offers an organized process to facilitate 
mass authoring. Most collaborative document systems provide features that allow users to co-create 
and edit content, develop topics areas, link pages, add tags, and create cross references. These flexible 
documents are generally edited from within a webpage and are visible to a selected audience. 



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Web 2.0 and Social Media for Business Wikis and Other Collaborative Documents 

Additional tools permit document owners to determine who can access material, what type of access is 
granted (e.g. read only, editing, et cetera) and how the material is distributed. Some collaborative systems 
include talk pages or onscreen chat windows. Others provide a presentation mode. Most collaborative 
documents serve as work spaces and may become knowledge repositories. Chapter 6 provided a look 
at wikis and tools used for collaborative creation of documents and other material; and provided a 
perspective on how these applications are used in business. 

6.7 Bibliography 

Barsky, E. and D. Giustini (December 2007), "Introducing Web 2.0: wikis for health librarians", Journal 
of the Canadian Health Libraries Association 28 (4). 147-150. 

Gilbert, D. Chen, H.L. and Sabol, J. (2008). Building Learning Communities with Wikis. In Wiki Writing: 
Collaborative Learning in the College Classroom (Robert E. Cummings and Matt Barton, Eds.). University 
of Michigan Press. Ann Arbor, MI. 1-18. 

Hai-Jew, S. and McHaney, R.W. (2010). ELATEwiki: Evolving an E-Learning Faculty Wiki. In Cases on 
Digital Technologies in Higher Education: Issues and Challenges (Rocci Luppicini and A.K. Haghi, eds.). 
1-23. 

Hepp, M., Siorpaes, K. and Bachlechner, D. (2007) "Harvesting Wiki Consensus: Using Wikipedia 
Entries for Knowledge Management," special issue on Semantic Knowledge Management, IEEE Internet 
Computing. 54-65. 

Majchrzak, A., Wagner, C. and Yates, D. (2006), "Corporate wiki users", Corporate wiki users: results of 
a survey, Symposium on Wikis, 99. 

McHaney, R.W. (2009, November 4). Implementation of ELATEwiki. EDUCAUSE QUARTERLY 32 (4). 
Retrieved from: 

http://wwweducause.edu/EDUCAUSE+Quarterly/EDUCAUSEQuarterlyMagazineVolum/ 
ImplementationofEL ATEwiki/ 1 92968 

McHaney, R.W. (2011). The New Digital Shoreline: How Web 2.0 and Millennial Are Revolutionizing 
Higher Education. Stylus Publishing. 

McHaney, R. (2012). "The Web 2.0 Mandate for a Transition from Webmaster to Wiki Master. In Open- 
Source Technologies for Maximizing the Creation, Deployment and Use of Digital Resources and Information. 
S. Hai-Jew, Ed. Hershey: IGI-Global. 

MediaWiki (2012). About MediaWiki. http://www.mediawiki.org/wiki/How does MediaWiki work 

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188 



Web 2.0 and Social Media for Business Wikis and Other Collaborative Documents 

Notari, M. (2006). "How to Use a Wiki in Education: Wiki-based Effective Constructive Learning" 
Proceedings of the 2006 International Symposium on Wikis (New York: Association for Computing 
Machinery. 131-132. 

Parker, K.R. and Chao, J.T. "Wiki as a Teaching Tool," Interdisciplinary Journal of Knowledge and 
Learning Objects vol. 3 (2007). pp. 57-72. 

Phillipson, M. (2008). Wikis in the Classroom: A Taxonomy. In Wiki Writing: Collaborative Learning 
in the College Classroom (Robert E. Cummings and Matt Barton, Eds.). University of Michigan Press. 
Ann Arbor, ML 19-43. 

Seitzinger, J. (2006). "Be Constructive: Blogs, Podcasts, and Wikis as Constructivist Learning Tools," 
Learning Solutions e-Magazine. 

Shirky, C. (2008). Here Comes Everybody: The Power of Organizing without Organizations (New York: 
Penguin Group). 

Wikidot (2012). Learn More Page, http://www.wikidot.eom/learnmore:education 



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Social Buzz and Viral Phenomenon 



7 Social Buzz and Viral 
Phenomenon 

Web 2.0 has enabled crowd behavior to suddenly become independent of time and geographic location. 
This means that while crowd behaviors still exist, their manifestation has the ability to become vastly 
different. This does not mean physical crowds no longer form. Recent media is filled with examples of 
social media enabling this to occur. Examples include: Egypt's 2011 Tahrir Square revolution against 
former president Hosni Mubarak which relied heavily on a Facebook page maintained by a rotating staff 
of twenty during the uprising (BBC News, 201 1); the 201 1 London Riots where four days of looting and 
rioting moved across the UK in a way made possible by rioters' use of social media, such as Facebook 
and Twitter (Rutledge, 2011); and less insidious, flash mobs such as London's 2006 silent disco where 
thousands of people assembled suddenly at various Underground Stations to dance to music audible 
only in their earphones for a short time before dispersing. 




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Web 2.0 and Social Media for Business Social Buzz and Viral Phenomenon 

While these are clearly examples of crowds that use social media to organize events at particular locations 
and certain times, no longer are crowds limited in this way. People can be separated in time and space, 
or belong to multiple crowds simultaneously through use of social media such as Twitter, Facebook, 
StumbleUpon and Reddit. It is also important to recognize that social media provides multiple functions. 
For instance, a person may belong to communities that have been organized with social media tools but 
those same tools can result in crowd-inspired "waves" to move through these communities at incredible 
rates. These waves lack leadership and a common purpose and are often referred to as viral. 

Ideas, concepts and rumors can rapidly move through online channels but are limited by the technology 
that exists to facilitate this movement. For instance, online crowds use comments, votes, thumbs up or 
down, blog entries, tweets, and so forth to send something of interest to their connections. This changes 
the nature of the crowd and reduces the richness of the communication. Chapter 7 is going to look at 
ways various social media tools such as Twitter, StumbleUpon, Reddit, Tumblr, Pinterest, and Foursquare 
work and create an infrastructure resulting in social buzz. Several other tools including Social Mention, 
Mention, WhosTalkin, and Klout will be explored to help understand how social buzz can be tracked 
by businesses and individuals. Two big players, Facebook and Linkedln will be covered in Chapter 8. 

7.1 Twitter for Business 

Twitter has become a fundamental mechanism used to facilitate communication between a business and 
its customer base. In section 1.2.2 we defined Twitter in terms of microblogging and social media and 
provided examples of general uses that just scratched the surface of business possibilities. 

The basic idea behind Twitter, you may recall, is to send and receive public messages up to 140 characters 
in length. These messages, called Tweets, can be seen by anyone with an Internet connection or mobile 
device and are stored sequentially on webpages that can be searched and reviewed. The messages are 
intended to share information with anyone who follows the account but can be accessed through public 
searches and in other ways. Every Tweet from all of a user's subscribed accounts is stored in a timeline. 
Collectively, this creates a vast information network storing millions of messages available for research 
and business intelligence applications (Twitter, 2012). Not only does Twitter provide a way for individuals, 
businesses and stakeholders to communicate, more importantly, Twitter provides a vast network of 
business intelligence ready to be interpreted (Picincu, 2010). 



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7.1 .1 Twitter Searches 

Twitter has become an amazing phenomenon that grew from a simple communication system into a 
powerful information network. Since Twitter communication is public and messages can be searched, a 
variety of possibilities are created. First, many people and businesses use Twitter to discover and share 
new information (Twitter, 2012). Twitter searches can be conducted using a variety of tools provided 
both by Twitter and by third-party organizations. For instance, a search of Tweets can be conducted from 
Twitters webpage. Figure 7.1 provides an example of searching for Tweets mentioning "Digital Business". 



'Digital Business 11 



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Figure 7.1 Searching Tweets from Twitter's Website 

Twitter also provides an application called TweetDeck which is a social media dashboard application. 
It allows users to send and receive tweets, view profiles, conduct searches, save common searches, and 
perform other Twitter related tasks. Figure 7.2 demonstrates the use of TweetDeck for conducting a 
search of recent Tweets containing the words "Digital Business". 



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Figure 7.2 Searching Tweets Using TweetDeck from Twitter 

Since Twitter communication is public, Tweets are available to the entire world. Twitter s default search 
only extends back a couple weeks so a wide variety of third-party applications have emerged to provide 
additional search capabilities and interface with business intelligence tools. Competition is fierce in this 
area and many new applications appear regularly. Table 7.1 provides examples of various tools that exist 
in this area. 



Software 


Website 


Comments 


backtweets 

SEARCH FOR LflJKS OH TWTTT1EF 


http://backtweets.com/ 


This search engine allows particular URLs and domain 
mentions to be searched in Tweets. It also provides general 
search capabilities. 


TwimeMachine 


http://www. 
twimemachine.com/ 


Twime Machine provides the capability of browsing back 
through the last 3200 Tweets sent out using your Twitter 
account. This is a useful but very narrowly focused tool. 


SnopBird 


http://snapbird.orq/ 


Snap Bird provides a variety of search options for finding Tweets 
from a specific user or from a person's own Twitter account. 


TOPSY 


http://topsv.com/ 


This search tool permits a wider range of searches in Tweets 
and other social media. It is powerful and enables easy 
searches into the past. 


TWEETSCAN 


http://tweetscan.com/ 


Tweet Scan provides tools for quickly viewing trending Tweets 
and an option to dig deeper into the past. It also provides 
options for identi.ca and specific user Tweet searches. 



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Table 7.1 Example Third-Party Twitter Applications Useful in Business 

While these search tools are useful, most are limited by time frame and the number of Tweets that can 
be accessed at any given time. Part of the reason for this is the enormous volume of Tweets that have 
generated since Twitter first appeared in 2006. Twitter appears to want all Tweets to be available to 
the public but this requires maintaining a large and expensive infrastructure. In April of 2010, Twitter 
donated its archive of public tweets to the U.S. Library of Congress (Watters, 201 1). This means that every 
public Tweet ever sent will be preserved and eventually made available to researchers, businesses, and the 
general public. This historic donation will remove the social responsibility from Twitter to provide this 
information and it will enable a potentially rich, grass-roots level history, generated by the people living 
the events, to be retrospectively reviewed. According to Watters (2011) in Forbes Magazine, "Several 
important historical moments ha[ve] already been captured on Twitter when the announcement was 
made last year (the first tweet from space, for example, Barack Obamas first tweet as President, or news 
of Michael Jackson's death), since then our awareness of the significance of the communication channel 
has certainly grown." 

This project will make valuable data available to businesses on their own products, customers, and 
services as well as on their competitors. However, a project of this magnitude will take time to design 
and release. It will come with a number of challenges. It will not be available overnight. In the meantime, 
searches like those mentioned in Table 7.1 will provide the best source of information from Twitter 
and its users. 



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Social Buzz and Viral Phenomenon 



A number of other search tools also exist. The blog TweetSmarter, found at http://blog.tweetsmarter. 
com/twitter-search/10-ways-and-20-features-for-searching-old-tweets/, provides more tools and ideas 
for finding user information using Twitter. 

7.1.2 Twitter Analytics 

In situations where important, mission critical information can be learned by mining Tweets, a business 
might want to use more sophisticated search tools. As mentioned earlier, business analysis of Twitter is 
truly in its early stages and the available tools have not yet fully matured. However, advances are being 
made. For instance, The Archivist, currently in alpha release, provides the ability to understand more 
about Tweets that mention a particular topic. This topic might be a business or product name. In Figure 
7.3, Tweet Volume, Top Tweeters, Number of ReTweets, Top Words, Top URLs and the source of Tweets 
are all summarized for the phrase "Kansas State University". By discovering where social chatter comes 
from and what is being said, businesses can begin to understand more about their clients, potential 
markets, and competitors. Information regarding business opportunities, quality management efforts, 
and general improvement venues also can be determined. A number of other useful statistics can be 
obtained from "The Archivist". 



1 



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( http://www.tweetarchivist.com) 



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Social Buzz and Viral Phenomenon 



Organizations that need to analyze older (this may mean only a few months!) Twitter content and cannot 
wait for the Library of Congress to open their Twitter database can obtain services from organizations 
such as Gnip. Gnip offers access to Twitter's data streams and dozens of other social media feeds and 
is an authorized reseller of Twitter data. Twitter s full data feed, called its Firehose, provides all Tweets 
being sent through Twitter. Gnip extracts the subset relating to a particular firm, its products, and other 
interests (See Figure 7.4). 



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Businesses use Twitter for a variety of purposes, ranging from marketing to customer service to product 
development. Twitter can be particularly powerful for new companies and can result in the quick spread 
of information. Jill Duffy (2011) of PC Magazine provides several tips and suggestions for companies 
wishing to successfully use Twitter. First, she says, be sure to define the business purpose for using 
Twitter. If it is merely to drive traffic to the company website, Twitter may not be the best tool. Instead, 
think of using Twitter to create a dialog and gather business information. Second, be sure to assign the 
correct Tweeters. These people need to be knowledgeable, good listeners and trustworthy. They will 
represent a company to the world. Remember that Tweets are public and once they have been sent out, 
it is nearly impossible to effectively retract what was said. Third, Jill suggests developing a voice. This 
is can be tricky because people want to know who they are 'talking with. So, an organization needs to 
establish a way to put 'faces' on its Twitter feeds. Fourth, follow the right people. Be sure to subscribe 
to high quality Twitter feeds and remove spammers and those pushing adult content. An organization 
with the support of friendly Tweeters is fortunate and can look forward to ReTweets that help spread 
information more widely. Finally, Duffy says to have a business-appropriate sense of humor. Remember 
people are reading Tweets and sending them because it is fun and interesting for them. Twitter provides 
five additional tips and best practices on its website (Figure 7.5). 

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Best Practices 

Build your following, reputation, and customer's 
trust with these simple practices: 

1. Share. Share photos and behind the scenes info about your 
business. Even better, give a glimpse of developing projects and 
events. Users come to Twitter to get and share the latest, so give it to 
them! 

2. Listen. Regularly monitor the comments about your company brand, 
and products. 

3. Ask. Ask questions of your followers to glean valuable insights and 
show that you are listening 

4. Respond. Respond to compliments and feedback in real time 

5. Reward. Tweet updates about special offers, discounts and 
time -sensitive deals 

6. Demonstrate wider leadership and know-how. Reference 
articles and links about the bigger picture as it relates to your 
business. 

7. Champion your stakeholders. Retweet and reply publicly to great 
tweets posted by your followers and customers. 

S Establish the right voice. Twitter users tend to prefer a direct, 
genuine and of course, a likable tone from your business, but think 
about your voice as you Tweet. How do you want your business to 
appear to the Twitter community? 



Figure 7.5 Twitter Best Practices ( https://business.twitter.com/basics/best-practices/) 

7.2 Social Buzz with StumbleUpon and Reddit 

Websites such as StumbleUpon and Reddit have become giants on the Web. Both provide venues for 
finding and sharing interesting material. For a business, this can mean publicity (hopefully in a good 
way), new customers and free exposure. 

7.2.1 StumbleUpon 

StumbleUpon is designed to help a user "discover new and interesting stuff on the Web" (StumbleUpon, 
2012). The website asks a user to provide basic information about likes (already a marketer's dream come 
true) and in return they provide a journey to websites, videos, blogs, photos and other material. The 
more other users like the page, the higher they become rated and hence more likely to be viewed by 
even more 'Stumblers'. As a user views more pages and rates them, their profile become more specific 
and can be better tailored to them. Figure 7.6 illustrates. 

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Social Buzz and Viral Phenomenon 



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StumbleUpon can be an addicting website that becomes time consuming from a user's perspective. From 
a business perspective, it can become an excellent way to receive publicity. The Hatcher Group (working 
to connect nonprofits and foundations to policymakers and the media) suggest several ideas to help 
develop and maintain a presence on StumbleUpon. Table 7.2 illustrates. 



Idea 


Comments 


Create a Memorable 
Avatar 


A StumbleUpon avatar needs to be something recognizable that brands user 
contributions. The following Website has examples of memorable avatars: 
http://www.qetelastic.com/best-avatars/ 


Learn from Top Stumblers 


Top Stumblers have determined how to use the system to maximum potential. 
Review their profiles, their likes, and their submissions. 


Maximize Fan Base 


By adding people as friends, a business can build a bigger fan base. Try to add people 
with similar interests that already have many fans. StumbleUpon only allows 200 
friends so if your business reaches that limit, be sure to delete the inactive ones and 
continually add new active users that have also added you. 


Include the StumbleUpon 
Button on Site 


Prominently displaying a StumbleUpon button on a blog, wiki or website will 
increase its chances of getting votes and even of being submitted in the first place. 



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Social Buzz and Viral Phenomenon 



Idea 


Comments 


Regularly Submit Quality 
Posts 


Adding quality posts will attract fans and give your submissions more credibility. 
Stumblers are very good at detecting self-promotion and generally despise it. 
Success comes with long term interaction with the community. It is important to 
submit from sites that are not always your own. 


Send Messages to 
Followers 


Sending messages with links to your favorite submissions is a good way to generate 
votes. Be careful to use this sparingly because you do not want to gain a reputation 
as a spammer. 


Vote Often 


Voting frequently will get your avatar, screen name, and link to your profile posted. 
This makes it easier for others to find you and your submissions. 


Choose Submission Titles 
and Reviews Carefully 


People will either view or discount sites rapidly based on a descriptive title. It may 
help to include a quote from the site or a brief, interesting summary. 


Tag Carefully 


StumbleUpon limits tags to five so be sure to include five relevant and descriptive tags. 


Choose Appropriate Topics 
for Submissions 


Be sure to choose the correct topic in order to get viewers for your submission. 


Get Listed on 
StumbleUpon Buzz 


The ultimate accomplishment on StumbleUpon is getting your submission listed on 
the StumbleUpon Buzz page. That will ensure thousands of viewers per day. Getting 
rave reviews and votes helps get a submission listed on the buzz page. You may have 
to call in favors and ask friends and followers to provide reviews and votes to help 
accomplish this. 



Table 7.2 Building a Presence in StumbleUpon (From: The Hatcher Group, 2008) 



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In addition to gaining notoriety from submissions to StumbleUpon, a business can also use their 
advertising services to target particular interest groups and topics. 

7.2.2 Reddit 

Reddit is a website known for its openness and diverse user community. The premise behind Reddit is 
that users will submit content (typically text-based posts, images, links or other items). Sometimes the 
posts are discussion topics, other times comments or controversial statements. Other users then vote 
the post up or down. The most popular posts move up until they reach the sites' front page. Comments 
to the posts can also be voted up or down. The website is divided into subject areas called subreddits 
which can be subdivided even more. Reddit is truly a user driven website and has become a platform 
used to raise public awareness regarding many issues. Reddit is often considered revolutionary and 
provides a platform for individuals to build a following. That being said, Reddit users are often turned 
off by self-promotion. 

Reddit can be used by businesses provided they have a blog or other content they publish. An article or 
item can be submitted to Reddit then as others read the article or view the content, they can vote it up 
(hopefully) resulting in even more readers. Reddit works the best with well written informative content, 
particularly if it has a social conscience. On the negative side, Reddit communities have been criticized 
for having a hive mindset and for being subject to some negative aspects of group interaction, crowd 
psychology and collective consciousness (Alexa, 2012). 

Reddit is unique in many ways. Probably most interesting to businesses is that Reddit reaches engaged 
individuals. Reddit users typically are predisposed to leaving comments and participating in real dialog. 
Reddit provides a paid advertising service that allows a company to reach those reading and posting in 
particular subreddit areas. Reddit ads also include comment threads where viewers can discuss the ad 
and the product being advertised. Figure 1.1 provides a view of Reddit's advertising program. 



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Social Buzz and Viral Phenomenon 



reddit advertising 




Reach your audience 

• Get your message to millions 
of viewers 

■ Target viewers on what THEY 
are interested in, not what 
their demographic is 

■ Use text, images, and video 
in your ads 



Control your budget 

• Bid-based system ensures 
you get a fair piece of the 
daily pie 

■ Low CPM, even with low bids 



Interact with customers 

• reddit ads have comments, 
view what people think in 
real-time 

■ Up and Down vote system, 
see how much people enjoy 
your link, in one metric 



Track your stats 

* View graphs of your 
impressions and clicks 

■ All stats available for 
download 



Start advertising today! 

A comic that explains it all. 

Have questions? Read the FAQ, or send us an email. 

Interested in a bigger campaign? Talk to our sales team. 



I Create an ad | 

manage existing ads 



Figure 7.7 Using Reddit for Paid Ads 

Many of the same hints suggested for StumbleUpon apply to submitting material to Reddit. Chris Campbell 
(2011) of Lakeshore Branding makes the following suggestions for submitting items (See Table 7.3): 



Idea 


Comments 


Regularly Submit Quality 
Links 


Be sure to submit links from your blog entries as new, interesting material is created. 
Reddit is viral by design and if something is submitted that interests others, the 
material may take on a life of its own. Likewise, any whiff of spam or self-promotion 
will quickly doom a link. If you have a website or blog that regularly delivers fresh, 
quality content, don't hesitate to promote it on Reddit. 


Use Eye Catching Titles 


Having an interesting title is the first step toward getting readers interested in 
your material. Do more than submit links, use catchy material to draw attention. 
Remember, Reddit thrives on the 'here and now' and most readers are looking for 
innovative and new material. The title needs to convey this. 


Use Tags 


Relevant, interesting tags are just as important as an interesting title. Be sure to add 
tags for every new link. This means more people will find it. 


Share Customer 
Testimonials 


Creating a testimonials page can be an excellent approach for promoting a business, 
product or service. Creating a list of customer reviews, interesting stories, quotes, 
and successes can help build a great content page. A Reddit link to that page might 
provide an alternative to other ways of getting the message out. 


Target Multiple 
Categories 


Successful submission to Reddit requires placing links under relevant categories. 
Since Reddit is a viral system, a link in one category might not catch on while another 
may. For instance, company news might find an audience under: Business, News, 
or Announcements. Information about a product might be best submitted under 
Gadgets, Technology, or another more specific subreddit. 



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Idea 


Comments 


Submit Pictures and 
Videos 


Reddit thrives on the visual appeal of photos and videos. Information provided in this 
way will attract more interest than the content of a text-based blog. 


Participate by Doing More 
than Submitting Your 
Company Links 


Reddit does not work well for self-promotion. It is a community that provides a venue 
for information sharing and engagement. Reddit rewards committed users with its 
karma ladder. By voting more and participating, a Redditor will gain more followers 
who will pay more attention to your submitted material 



Table 7.3 Building a Presence in Reddit 



7.3 Tumblr 



Tumblr fills the gap between Twitters microblogging features and Facebooks overarching social media 
capabilities. A relatively new service (first launched in April, 2007), Tumblr has grown to nearly 50 million 
blogs with over 18 billion posts. It has an 85% user retention rate (Dannen, 2009) and over 13 billion views 
per month. The idea behind Tumblr is to refresh the medium of the blog and renew it with a better format, 
centralized management, and higher levels of interactivity. Tools have been added to Tumblr to enable users to 
post photos, videos, audio, text, bookmarks, tags, and embedded pages for sharing. Tumblr does not require 
posting media on other sites (for instance posting to YouTube and then embedding it in a blog entry). It 
allows material to be uploaded directly from a number of sources including mobile devices (See Figure 7.8). 




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Social Buzz and Viral Phenomenon 




Figure 7.8 Example of Tumblelogs Tagged with Education 



Tumblr is populated with tumblelogs. These 'blog entries' may take the form of a stream of Tweets. In 
other instances, the entries might appear more like multimedia blog entries. Many people use a tumblelog 
to represent a personal view of their lives like an online diary or journal. Tumblr users can follow each 
other s blogs and restrict viewers with privacy settings. 

7.3.1 Tumblr for Business 

Tumblr is not a venue traditionally envisioned for business use. For many industries, it might be a poor 
choice. For instance, banking, financial services and those seeking to develop a traditional business 
reputation might not find the 'flash and glitter' of Tumblr compatible with their business objectives. 

Tumblr does excel in businesses seeking a fast paced, social network optimized for quick consumption 
content, particularly when multimedia is the focus. Tumblr is mainly concerned with photos, videos, 
quotes and questions. Its members are known for being edgy, artistic, and inspirational. This means 
businesses and brands with highly visual cultures are perfect for Tumblr. As an example, many 
organizations in industries such as fashion, art, travel, hotel/ restaurant management, and publishing are 
supplementing their primary websites with this venue. Posts are often completely visual and meant to be 
consumed on mobile devices where text can be difficult to read. Table 7.4 provides examples of businesses 
maintaining Tumblr sites. Figure 7.9 provides a further example of the visual nature of a Tumblr site. 



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Social Buzz and Viral Phenomenon 



Company 


Tumblr Site Address 


The Standard Hotel 


http://content.standardculture.com 


Ace Hotel 


http://bloq.acehotel.com 


Elle 


http://elle.tumblr.com 


Entertainment Weekly 


http://entertainmentweeklv.tumblr.com 


Glamour 


http://qlamour.tumblr.com 


Rolling Stone 


http://rollinqstone.tumblr.com 


J Crew 


http://jcrew.tumblr.com 


Foursquare 


http://foursquare.tumblr.com 


Hufflngton Post 


http://hufflnqtonpost.tumblr.com 


Twitter 


http://status.twitter.com 



Table 7.4 Example Businesses Using Tumblr 



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Figure 7.9 Visual Nature of Rolling Stone Magazine's Tumblr Site 



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7.3.2 Tumblr Business Characteristics 

Tumblr is not a full-featured blogging platform like WordPress, nor is it a minimal social platform like 
Twitter. Its strength lies in the simplicity to rapidly develop, customize and use its resources. And perhaps 
more importantly it is easy for users to find and view material on mobile devices. Tumblr offers only 
minimal customization options and does not permit self-hosting. These limitations mean most businesses 
view it as a supplement to primary websites. 

Tumblr is ideal for reaching a user demographic harder to contact via print media or in other ways. 
Tumblr offers users more than a platform. For them it is a community where people share content, 
interact, answer questions, and follow tumblelogs that align with their interests. If an organization has 
products or services applicable to Tumblr s demographic (under 34 years old and mobile device users) 
and relevant visual content can be created and posted, then it is an ideal venue. Organizations have found 
that coupons, product information, sales notices, and other material often are shared among users on 
Tumblr. The key is to keep it fresh, visual, and meaningful (Ehrlich, 2011). 




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Web 2.0 and Social Media for Business Social Buzz and Viral Phenomenon 

7.4 Pinterest 

Pinterest is a social media sharing website designed so users can organize and share images and videos 
that have caught their interest. Uploaded images are called Pins and are typically organized into Pin 
Boards. Pin Boards generally relate to a theme and can be followed by other Pinterest users. Content 
can be RePinned, Liked, and shared. Users can follow each other as well as specific Pin Boards. Like 
Tumblr, Pinterest is visually- oriented and suited for use on mobile devices. Pinterest opened for beta 
use in 2010, making it a young and rapidly growing site. 

The premise behind Pinterest is that users can easily track interesting items they find on the Web (or 
that they create for themselves). The community aspect becomes important as individuals rely on others 
with similar interests to help find new relevant items. 

Due to its nature, Pinterest has become popular in areas where a visual component is important. For 
instance, Pinterest often is used for interior design, art, fashion, recipes, food, cake decorating, and 
shopping. Businesses benefit from interest in their products because traffic is driven to their websites. 
Users have the ability to communicate by reposting content, sharing pins on Facebook, tweeting pins, 
or embedding Pinterest material on blogs (Georgieva, 2012). 

Pinterest guards against self-promotion but welcomes the development of Pin Boards that contain 
information about commercial products and services. A company can participate in Pinterest as a 
community member but would need to be careful of the manner in which material is posted in order 
to avoid overtly commercial content. Figure 7.10 provides a view of the Chobani Yogurt Company's 
Pinterest site with example Pin Boards and posts. 



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Web 2.0 and Social Media for Business 



Social Buzz and Viral Phenomenon 




Chobani 



Nothing but good pins from America's #1 yogurt. & the Official Sponsor of the 2012 US 
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We Would Like to Make Y. . 

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CHO the Places Well Go! 

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Figure 7.10 Chobani Yogurt Pinterest Site 

7.5 Foursquare and Location-Based Services 

Location-based mobile platforms enable users to "check in" via a smartphone app and share their location 
and other details with friends and businesses. Location-based services (LBS) are seen as the next big area 
for business expansion with more than six billion mobile users in the world. According to TNS Global 
( http://www.tnsglobal.com/mobile-life/map/global/feature/lbs/both ), almost 20% of these mobile device 
owners already use LBS, creating a huge untapped market. Popular LBSs include Foursquare, Yelp, and 
Living Social. This chapter will focus on Foursquare since it is the leader in this area. 

7.5.1 Foursquare for Users 

Foursquare creates competition between users by encouraging them to earn points and badges for 
leaving tips, information, and photos of their current location. This information can be used by others 
to create to-do/to-go-to lists. Merchants and brands can leverage their Foursquare presence by offering 
specials and VIP information to Foursquare users (Elatewiki, 201 1). So, in a sense, Foursquare is creating 
a worldview based on users' opinions and experiences. Foursquare is a young company, founded in 
2009 by Dennis Crowley and Naveen Selvadurai. It has grown to over 20 million users as of June 2012. 
Table 7.5 provides a summary of Foursquare's approach to collecting and sharing information from a 
customer perspective (Dubois, 2011; Zimmett, 2012). 

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Activity 


Description 


Check In 


The primary activity on Foursquare is for users to check in at their location and current venue. 
A mobile device is used to indicate current geography and this opens the door for publishing 
tips and hints. Venue tips are essentially hints on how to fully enjoy a particular venue to the 
fullest. Tips may be about favorite dishes, places to sit, how to get a discount, or other little 
known facts. When a Foursquare member checks in to a venue with his or her mobile device, 
these hints become visible. Businesses can also leave hints for people visiting their venue. 
Check-in is manual so a user does not have to make their location public. 


Get Points and Badges 


Leaving hints and tips enables users to earn awards, points and badges. The more check ins, 
the more points that are earned. Users compete with friends to top the leaderboard and 
gain recognition and status. At particular point levels or after achieving milestones, users are 
given badges. Badges are often sponsored by organizations and send users messages and 
give them bragging rights. Figure 7.1 1 provides example badges. 


Become Mayor 


If a user checks into a venue more times than any other user over a period of 60 days, he or 
she is tagged as its'mayor.' He or she will be recognized on the venue's Foursquare page. Their 
comments and hints will get priority on the venue's site. 


Get Rewarded 


Often, businesses will reward their mayors with discounts orfreebies. Foursquare also can be 
used by businesses as a "digital loyalty card"to track visitors. Regular visitors might be offered 
a discount, free drink, or other incentives. Businesses may also offer broader discounts to any 
Foursquare visitor that checks in at a particular time. 



Table 7.5 Foursquare User Activity 








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Figure 7.1 1 Foursquare Badges from 4SquareBadges.com 

7.5.2 Foursquare for Business 

Unlike many social media applications, Foursquare is specifically designed for use by business. The 
software allows businesses to find, interact with, interest, reward, and retain customers. Businesses 
control and personalize their venue (if they choose to) and then have access to user traffic, comments, 
and other statistics. Businesses can create specials to reward loyal customers using Foursquare services 
and use free data services to better understand customers. 

Foursquare does charge a nominal fee for creating badges. These fees vary based on business size and 
other factors. They seek to evaluate partnerships and form mutually beneficial agreements with particular 
interest in helping new and small businesses. Foursquare provides free data analytics including customer 
demographics (male to female ratio, regular customers); time-related statistics (check in times); and 
information comparing customer check in to loyalty program memberships. Foursquare is working to 
create more powerful data analytics to provide more customer information for businesses. Table 7.6 
offers a business user s perspective of Foursquare. 



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Activity 


Description 


Claim Venue 


A business can see if a customer has created a venue for their location. If so, the business 
owner can claim this venue by clicking a link that notifies Foursquare they manage it. 
Foursquare will ask questions and verify the claim. A verification code will be issued via 
phone or email. The business will then have the ability to personalize venue information. 


Get Stickers 


Foursquare provides a venue owner a Foursquare sticker that enables users to check in, 
unlock specials, meet friends and explore other nearby venues. The sticker is essentially 
a virtual doorway into the business site on Foursquare. 


Create a Special 


Businesses can create specials to entice users to enter the physical venue and make 
purchases. Specials may include discounts, free gifts, return visit specials, or other 
things. Foursquare offers a wide variety of pre-created, easy-to-use specials that can be 
customized. See Figure 7.12 for an example special. 


Track and Analyze 


The venue and its specials can be tracked with Foursquare analytics. Statistics such as 
number of check ins, most recent check in, most frequent visitor, percent of visitors using 
specials, and other information is available. 



Table 7.6 5 Foursquare Business Activity 




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Figure 7.12 Foursquare Special Offer 



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7.6 Tracking Social Interest 

The use of social media by an organization is an inexact science at best. The act of creating content 
and posting it can be controlled but what happens afterward is far from predictable. At best, a sense of 
what may happen with postings or different types of community interaction can be derived by tracking 
emerging social interest over time. A number of free tools have been created to help monitor social 
media activity and provide a sense of the attitude toward a brand, organization, or product. The tools in 
this area are competing for leadership and currently use a variety of approaches. Each tool may provide 
different social mentions. After locating a mention, it is possible to post it to a service such as Scoop.lt 
( www.scoop.it ) to maintain a more permanent list (See Figure 7.13). 




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=U Ernst &Young 

Quality In Everything We Do 



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211 




Web 2.0 and Social Media for Business 



Social Buzz and Viral Phenomenon 




Incorporating Web 2.0 Tools in Careers 
& Classrooms 



SaCJove t 

■ usei 



" Roger McHaney recently 
penned an essay for Inside 
Higher Ed about incorporating 
web 2.0 tools into one's career 
and classroom. McHaney 
suggests that prof essors 
incorporate technology into..." 

jfl Scooped by Roger McHaney 



www.youtube.com -April 23, 9:00 AM 

You Tube Book Report 



>ped by Roger McHaney 



Thinking and Researching 




The New Digital Shoreline: 
How Web2,G and Millenm'als 
Are Revolutionizing Higher 
I Education Roger McHaney. 

This book is written in a very 
yjE direct, conversational style that 
9 is easy to read and explains why 
R we need to rethink how we 
hr. ■ approach teaching and learning 
in the light of technology and 
learner change and how we might do that. Roger's basic premise 
is that the world has changed, our learners have changed and we 
need to understand them better and harness the technology to 
make the pedagogic changes we could only dream of previously. 
He points out that we have argued for years that active learning 
is more important that simple memorisation and information 
recall and that learning how to learn and being able to evaluate 
information found for accuracy and applicability have become 



Figure 7.1 3 Using Scoop.it to Maintain Records of Social Mentions 

Trying to track every social media mention related to an organization can be daunting and may not be 
completely possible. The combination of keywords, abbreviations, foreign language translations and so 
forth make it very hard to anticipate every way an organization, brand, product, employee and related 
entity might be mentioned by anyone, anywhere. To start, it is helpful to find mentions related to primary 
keywords, company name, product name, or brand, and build from there. Many organizations seek 
every mention to help learn what customers and potential customers like and do not like. This makes 
it possible to enact changes that will motivate positive publicity. 

An organization that uses particular social media software platforms should start by understanding their 
available analytics. For instance, if an organizational blog is being maintained, comments, likes, tweets and 
so forth from that blog page can be collected and reviewed. Likewise, if an organizational Facebook site 
exists, a comprehensive analytics suite called Insight will be available and will enable site owners to better 
understand fans and their use of the site. Facebook Insight provides basic user information including 
likes, unlikes, active users, traffic counts, and referrers. It also provides interaction activity analysis that 
looks into specific content updates and the reactions of users to those updates. This information helps an 
organization acquire data regarding the reception of its posts and gives a better understanding of posts 
or updates with the most impact. After monitoring likes, shares, comments, and unlikes, benchmarks 
can be established. This will provide an organization with a sense of what fans enjoy and enable a better 
sense of direction for future posts and updates. Like Facebook, Twitter offers a range of analytics. Section 
7.1.2 goes into detail on this topic. 

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212 



Web 2.0 and Social Media for Business 



Social Buzz and Viral Phenomenon 



Trackable links can also be used with Facebook and other social media. Link shortening websites such 
as goo.gl or bit.ly will provide statistics on the number of users that visit your site recommendations 
through these recommended short links. (See Figure 7.14). 




Shorten 



Sign In 



Bitly helps you share, track, and analyze your links. j 



f Sign in with Facebook 



fc Sign in with Twitter 



<&> 




Figure 7.14 Link Shortening Websites Provide Analytics 

Budgetary constraints are a reality for all businesses. This may mean social media tracking has to take 
a back seat to more pressing projects. To help ensure important viral activity is not missed, many 
organizations rely on low-cost tracking tools that attempt to summarize all the activity taking place in the 
social media world including blog entries, video posts, tweets, mentions, posts, comments, and so forth. 
The next sections will look at leading social mention tracking tools and discuss their use and limitations. 
It is important to try a variety of tools to discover the ones that work for a particular organization. Then 
the results can be measured and recorded to better understand how social media activity is helping 
achieve organizational goals. 

7.6.1 Social Mention 

Social Mention is a website-based social media search and analysis platform that aggregates user 
generated content from across the universe into a single stream of information (Social Mention, 2012). 
See Figure 7.15. 



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213 



Web 2.0 and Social Media for Business 



Social Buzz and Viral Phenomenon 



socialmention' 

Real-time social media search and analysis: 



in 



All 



Search 



or select socfal media sources 



Trends: Airline Baby Ban , d ha run ravf . Vitamin D Study , cory booker , Blood Sugar , the master , JFK Turtles 



Social Media Alerts 

Like Google Alerts but for social media. 

Receive free daily email alerts of your brand, 
company. CEO. marketing campaign, or on a 
developing news story, a competitor, or the 
latest on a celebrity. 



Realtime Buzz Widget 




Display realtime buzz on your site or blog. 



Figure 7.15 Social Mention Real-time Social Media Search 




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as knowledge-rich, on-line resources 
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© Agilent Technologies, Inc. 201 2 



www.agilent.com/find/EDUstudents 
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214 




Web 2.0 and Social Media for Business 



Social Buzz and Viral Phenomenon 



Social Mention works in real time and provides users with a summary of the current buzz related to 
a particular business, person, product or set of keywords. It monitors more than 100 social media 
websites including Twitter, Facebook, Digg, WordPress, Google, and YouTube. Its sources come from 
blogs, microblogs, bookmarks, comments, events, images, news, video, audio, Q&A, and networks. 
In addition, Social Mention provides options for receiving email alerts each time new social media 
is posted. 

Social Mention provides an excellent, comprehensive view of social media presence. In order to acquire 
this view, it is essential to discover key words or phrases that are being used to describe a company, 
person, product or brand. It may be necessary to perform multiple, ongoing searches to cover the range 
of possibilities. Figure 7.16 provides a look at Social Mentions related to the keywords: New Digital 
Shoreline McHaney. 



Bloqs Microblogs Bookmarks Comments Events Images News Video .Audio Q&A Networks All 



SOCial lTL6ntion* l New Df 9 ital Shorelin e mchaney 



Search 



0% 

strength 

15% 

passion 


1:0 

sentiment 

8% 

reach 



18 days avg. per mention 
last mention 29 days ago 
11 unique authors 
retweets 

Sentiment 



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1 


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■ 22 


negative 





Top Keywords 




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| 25 



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roger 

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higher 

education 

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author 

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10 
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4 



Mentions about New Digital Shoreline mchaney 

Sort By: Date 7 Results: Anytime 7 Results 1 - 15 of 23 mentions. 

"'I Digital Shoreline Book Review | New Digital Shoreline 

About ProfRogerMc. University Distinguished Teaching Scholar at Kansas State 

University with interests in computer simulation and educational technology use by 

tech-... 

www. mchaney. co rn/2 1 2/04/2 3/d i g it a I -s h o re I i n e -bo o k-revi e w/ 

29 days ago - by ProfRogerMc on googlejaloo 




www. youtube.co mAvat c h ?v=ec IZ3 B Myv8 A&fe at u re=y o ut u be_gd at a 

Figure 7.16 Social Mention Example 

As shown in the figure, Social Mention provides measures of passion, of whether the mentions are 
positive or negative, and which keywords are most related to the mentions. By changing keywords, new 
searches might provide a different set of results. In order to ensure a comprehensive view of the social 
buzz, it is necessary to perform a range of searches. 



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215 



Web 2.0 and Social Media for Business 



Social Buzz and Viral Phenomenon 



7.6.2 Mention.net 

Mention.net is another platform for measuring social media buzz in real time. Unlike Social Mention, 
it downloads to a PC or Mac rather than running from within a browser (although it has an app for 
Google Chrome). Mention provides a variety of free and paid services with a definite affinity for business 
applications. Not only does mention monitor social and traditional media, it also provides smart, anti- 
noise technology that permits users to 'teach' the system to ignore particular types of mentions that are 
not of interest. Mention provides the ability to send out live alerts and to automate particular action 
(e.g. retweets or reposting material). Figure 7.17 provides a view of the Mention.net website. Figure 7.18 
provides a look at Mention running from Windows 7. 



The ultimate monitoring tool 

Create alerts for your brand, your industry, your company, 
your name or your competitors and be informed in real-time 
about any mentions on the web and social web 



Download mention for Windows 



Free fo r Windows , Mac, Linux , and Yifeb 



or get the Chrome Ap p 




© 



Media and Social Monitoring 

Monitor millions of sources and don't miss anything 
published on social networks, news sites, forums blog or 
any web page. 

Anti-Noise Technology 

Remove the noise coming from homonyms and spam by 
using our in-house technology that learns from your 
behavior Don't be disrupted any mare when mentions don't 
match your alert. 

Team Work 

Share your alerts with any user for free and assign tasks. 
Ask your community manager to reply to a tweet comment 
on a blog article or share a mention with your partner 



fcL 



Live Alerts 

Get alerted in real-time via email and push notifications of 
new mentions Don't waste any time React quickly and 
efficiently. 

All Devices 

Access mention from anywhere. Use the web version or the 
chrome app download the desktop version for PC. Mac or 
Linux. Never miss a mention with iPhone app [coming 
soon} 

Smart Actions 

You can react to any mention the smart way Retweet a 
mention, share positive mentions directly on your Facebook 
page 



Figure 7.17 Mention.net Website 



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216 



Web 2.0 and Social Media for Business 



Social Buzz and Viral Phenomenon 



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7.6.3 WhosTalkin 



WhosTalkin.com is another relatively new social media buzz search tool. WhosTalkin permits users to 
track a set of topics and these can be tailored to match business interests. WhosTalkin uses blog entries, 
Twitter mentions, news stories, images, audio clips, videos, tags, social bookmarking services and other 
social media to develop an understanding of what is being said about particular people or topics. Who's 
Talking can also be interpreted as Who Stalkin and provides a sense of who is interested in topics relevant 
to an organization. 

As shown in Figure 7.19 Whostalkin's user interface is simple and effective. A search term can be typed 
in and the results will be listed below, categorized by type. The results can be used for drill-down so 
more specific information can be obtained. Whostalkin is a very fast search tool but lacks features found 
in other tools. It may be the best social media buzz search tool for doing exploratory quick searches in 
attempt to identify meaningful search terms. It provides a glimpse of what's happening at that very moment 
and is an excellent first step in social media searching (WhosTalkin, 2012; Dean, 2009; Turoczy, 2009). 




WHOS TALKIN 



social media search 



ABOUT 



TDf~)f ^ 



Figure 7.19 WhosTalkin has a Simple, Clean Interface 



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217 



Web 2.0 and Social Media for Business 



Social Buzz and Viral Phenomenon 



7.6.4 Klout 

Klout takes a different approach to understanding social buzz by developing a measure of online influence. 
It provides insight on the following (Klout, 2012): 

• Do others trust your opinions online? 

• What topics are you the most influential on? 

• How do you compare with your friends? 

Klout uses metrics from interaction within Twitter and Facebook and looks at reach (e.g. audience size) 
and amplification (e.g. how others reuse and interact with posted material and tweets) and network 
(measure of connected community's overall influence). See Figure 7.20. 



Find and follow us: http://twitter.com/bioradlscareers B^StPlBCGS 

www.linkedin.com/groupsDirectory, search for Bio-Rad Life Sciences Careers {q Pifoffc 
http://bio-radlifesciencescareersblog.blogspot.com 




Your Profession is Your Passion. Pass it On. 



John Randall, PhD 

Senior Marketing Manager, Bio-Plex Business Unit 



Bio-Rad is a longtime leader in the life science research industry and has been 
voted one of the Best Places to Work by our employees in the San Francisco 
Bay Area. Bring out your best in one of our many positions in research and 
development, sales, marketing, operations, and software development. 
Opportunities await — share your passion at Bio-Rad! 



www.bio-rad.com/careers 



BIO-RAD 



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218 




Web 2.0 and Social Media for Business 



Social Buzz and Viral Phenomenon 



Score Analysis 



TOPICS 

INFLUENCERS 

LISTS 

KLOUT STYLE 

PERKS 

ACHIEVEMENTS 



You need to engage more with others or be more active to gain influence 




Your Klout 

Score: 



12.38 



The Klout Score 
measures influence on a 
scale of 1 to 100. Learn 
more 



Figure 7.20 Example of Klout Score 

Klout provides data regarding connections and allows an individual or business to better understand 
who they influence or who their competitors influence. This makes it possible to understand more about 
how online information flows and which sources provide the most influence. This can become excellent 
business intelligence that will help guide the direction of future social interactions on the Web. 

Klout is easy to use. It starts with a Twitter account. Facebook, Linkedln, YouTube and other accounts 
can be added as well. Klout provides information including an influence matrix and a summary of user 
characteristics (e.g. listener, creator, et cetera). A business can use these as benchmarks and attempt to 
move to a position consistent with social media goals. Klout can be used to measure, monitor, compare, 
and improve social interaction by an organization (See Figure 7.21). 



You are an Observer 



You don't share very much, but you follow the social web more than you let on. You may just enjoy 
observing more fhan sharing nr you're nherkfng this stuff mil hefn re jumping in full-force 



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Figure 7.21 Klout Style 



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219 



Web 2.0 and Social Media for Business 



Social Buzz and Viral Phenomenon 



7.6.5 Other Measures 

Competition in social media influence and buzz measurement areas is currently fierce. Dozens of 
companies are forming and fighting to contend in this area which has business intelligence at its heart 
(Robinson, 2011). Table 7.7 contains other example services. 



Icon 


Website 


Description 




www.peerindex.com/ 


Similar to Klout, this service provides a measure of 
influence based on Twitter activity and other actions. 


Peer Index 




trend buzz 

INSTITUT 


www.trendvbuzz.com 


This French company blends real-time information 
tracking and the creation of dynamic dashboards 
dedicated to measuring and analyzing performance for 
web marketing and digital communication purposes. 
It is specifically aimed at businesses. 


YouflEB 




www.voutube.com/analvtics 


YouTube analytics and YouTube Insight provide 
demographic information related to people viewing an 
organization's posted video. Geographic information 
and other data are provided in report and summary 
form. 


board reader" 


boardreader.com 


This site provides analytics that offer a view of social 
chatter in online forums. It is very easy to use and 
provides a great starting point for finding where 
relevant activity is occurring. 


3 jotsuite 


hootsuite.com/ 


Hootsuite is receiving a great deal of recent attention 
from larger corporations. It provides a social media 
dashboard and analytics tools to make social media 
buzz easier to understand, track, and manage. 




Google Alerts 


http://www.qooqle.com/alerts 


Google Alerts is a free service that allows a user or 
business to monitor anything appearing on the web 
related to a particular set of keywords. The results are 
either emailed to the user or displayed as a feed. 





Table 7.7 Other Measures of Social Influence 



7.7 Conclusions 



Television networks, radio stations, and newspapers have traditionally competed to influence their 
constituencies. Web 2.0 has enabled individuals and organizations to acquire similar capabilities and 
use content creation and social interaction to develop online influence. Tools such as Twitter provide a 
mechanism to disseminate links to new content or interesting online material. Viral activity can result 
in a ripple effect where a Tweet is passed in ever- widening circles. Social media such as StumbleUpon 
and Reddit can enable even broader exposure to posted content (Gobry, 2010). New visual and mobile 
device focused content can be posted on social media websites such as Tumblr, Pinterest, and Foursquare. 
Coupled with Twitter, Reddit or StumbleUpon, new material can quickly gain notoriety. 



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220 



Web 2.0 and Social Media for Business 



Social Buzz and Viral Phenomenon 



Businesses are interested in understanding viral phenomena and how particular content is received, 
discussed, and used by its stakeholders. Social media buzz measurement tools can provide metrics and 
benchmarks for determining the types of posts, comments, videos, and content which exert the most 
influence. Tools such as Social Mention, WhosTalkin, Mention, and Klout decipher the complexities of 
social media activity and provide a framework to enable businesses to better target their social media 
communications and improve their effectiveness (Benkoil, 2012). 

7.8 Bibliography 

Alexa (2012) Reddit.com Site Info. Alexa.com (April 26). 
http://www.pbs.org/mediashift/2012/03/how-the-anti-social-media-crowd-misses-the-mark065.html 

BBC News (2011). Egypt crisis: President Hosni Mubarak resigns as leader. BBC News (February 12). 
http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-middle-east- 12433045http://wwwbbc.co.uk/news/world-middle- 
east- 12433045 

Benkoil, D. (2012). How the Anti-Social Media Crowd Misses the Mark. PBS.org (March 5). 
http://www.pbs.org/mediashift/2012/03/how-the-anti-social-media-crowd-misses-the-mark065.html 

Campbell, C. (2011). Using Reddit and Social Bookmarking for Business. 




Download free eBooks at bookboon.com 



encsson. 
com 



Shaping tomorrow's world - today 

Our business is at the heart of a connected world - a world 
where communication is empowering people, business and 
society. Our networks, telecom services and multimedia 
solutions are shaping tomorrow. And this might just be your 
chance to shape your own future. 

It's a people thing 

We are looking for high-caliber people who can see the 
opportunities, people who can bring knowledge, energy and vision 
to our organization. In return we offer the chance to work with 
cutting-edge technology, personal and professional development, 
and the opportunity to make a difference in a truly global company. 

We are currently recruiting both new graduates and experienced 
professionals in four areas: Software, Hardware, Systems and 
Integration & Verification. 

Are you ready to shape your future? Begin by exploring a career 
with Ericsson. Visit www.ericsson.com/join-ericsson 




221 




Web 2.0 and Social Media for Business Social Buzz and Viral Phenomenon 

Lake Shore Branding Blog (January 20). http://www.lakeshorebranding.com/company/blog/using-reddit- 
%e2%80%93-and-social-bookmarking-%e2%80%93-for-business/#ixzzltQ4fXOwF 

Dannen, C. (2009). What the Hell is Tumblr? And other Worthwhile Questions. Fast Company Blog 
(June 25). 

http://www.fastcompany.com/blog/chris-dannen/techwatch/what-hell-tumblr-and-other- worthwhile- 
questions. 

Dean, S. (2009). Whostalkin Social Media Search Comes Out of Beta Testing. Gigaom.com (January 6). 
http://gigaom.com/collaboration/whostalkin-social-media-search-comes-out-of-beta-testing/ 

Dubois, L. (2011). How to Best Utilize the New Foursquare for Business. Inc.com (January 27). 
http://www.inc.com/guides/201101/how-to-use-the-new-foursquare-for-business.html 

Duffy, J. (2011). How to Use Twitter for Business. PCMag.com (April 12). 
http://www.pcmag.com/article2/0,2817,2383442,00.asp 

Ehrlich, B. (2011). The Pros and Cons Of Tumblr For Small Business. Maskable Business (March 20). 
http://mashable.com/2011/03/20/tumblr-pros-cons-business/ 

ELATEwiki (2011). Foursquare, http://www.elatewiki.org/index.php/Foursquare 

Georgieva, M. (2012). How to Use Pinterestfor Business, Hubspot eBook. 
http://blog.hubspot.com/Portals/249/docs/ebooks/howtousepinterestforbusiness.pdf 

Gobry, RE. (2010). Reddit Ads Will Drive Better Traffic To Your Startup Than StumbleUpon Or Facebook. 
Business Insider (March 30). http://articles.businessinsider.com/2010-03-30/tech/30066124 1 ads- 
feedback-search-engine#ixzzlvllDPQlK 

Hatcher Group (2008). Tips for StumbleUpon Success, Hatcher Group Blog (May 16). 
http://thehatchergroup.wordpress.com/2008/05/16/tips-for-stumbleupon-success/ 

Klout (2012). Understanding Klout. http://klout.eom/#/understand 

Picincu, A. (2010). 10 Innovative Ways To Use Twitter For Business. Make Use Of (January 9). 
http://www.makeuseof.com/tag/10-innovative-ways-to-use-twitter-for-business/ 

Pinterest (2012). About Pinterest. http://pinterest.com 

Reddit (2012). About Reddit. http://reddit.com 

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222 



Web 2.0 and Social Media for Business Social Buzz and Viral Phenomenon 

Robinson, N. (201 1). 4 Free Tools for Social Media Competitive Analysis Social Media HQ (January 28). 
http://blog.socialmediahq.com/4-free-tools-for-social-media-competitive-analysis/ 

Rutledge, RB. (2011). London Riots: Blaming Social Media. Psychology Today Positively Media Blog 
(August 14). 
http://www.psychologytoday.com/blog/positively-media/201108/london-riots-blaming-social-media 

Social Mention (2012). About Social Mention, http://socialmention.com 

StumbleUpon (2012). About StumbleUpon. http://stumbleupon.com 

Tumblr (2012). About Tumblr. http://Tumblr.com 

Turoczy, R. (2009). WhosTalkin: Social Media Search for a Moment in Time. Read Write Web (January 
8). http://www.readwriteweb.com/archives/whostalkin social media search.php 

Twitter (2012). What is Twitter, https://business.twitter.com/en/basics/what-is-twitter/ 

Volpe, M. (2007). 10 Secrets to Marketing with Social News Sites - Digg, Reddit, StumbleUpon and more. 
Hubspot Blog (April 17). http://blog.hubspot.com/blog/tabid/6307/bid/1368/10-Secrets-to-Marketing- 
with-Social-News-Sites-Digg- Reddit- StumbleUpon-and-more.aspx#ixzzlvlvauTXg 

Watters, A. (201 1). The Library of Congress' Twitter Archive, One Year Later. Forbes.com (June 13). http:// 
www.forbes.com/sites/oreillymedia/2011/06/13/the-library-of-congress-twitter-archive-one-year-later/ 

WhosTalkin (2012). About WhosTalkin. http://whostalkin.com 

Zimmett, E. (2012). Eric Zimmett's Tech Talk: Foursquare and Location-Based Services for your 
Business. State College News (April 29). http://www.statecollege.com/news/columns/eric-zimmetts-tech- 
talk-foursquare-and-locationbased-services-for-your-business- 1053048/ 



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223 



Web 2.0 and Social Media for Business 



Big Social Media: Facebookand Linkedln 



8 Big Social Media: Facebook and 
Linkedln 

Two of the highest impact social media websites for business are Facebook and Linkedln. Coupled with 
Twitter, these three represent a high impact minimum that all organizations need to incorporate into 
their planning. 

Throughout this book, both social media and social networking have been mentioned. Although similar, 
these two terms are distinct. To best understand Facebook and Linkedln, it is necessary to clarify the 
two meanings. According to Matt Goddard (2012), social networking is the what' and social media is 
the 'how'. In other word, social media are tools that facilitate social networking (Stelzner, 2009). For 
instance, Linkedln is social media. Social networking takes place in Linkedln each time people form 
connections, exchange information, share, or discuss. Twitter is social media and each Tweet represents 
the act of social networking. Social media makes social networking easier. 



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224 




Web 2.0 and Social Media for Business Big Social Media: Facebook and Linkedln 

Goddard (2012) further states that "[s]ocial networks are made up of peers seeking and giving advice to 
make better decisions. Advanced social networking science can even tell us which people give out the 
most advice in the network and have the most influence. These people are called opinion leaders." The 
group of interconnected peers on Facebook or Linkedln represents a social network. Social networks 
can exist without social media and have for thousands of years. 

Social media, a recent arrival on the scene, has provided a new set of tools to make social networks 
easier to create, join, manage and use. Social media includes blogs, online videos, social news, social 
bookmarking and much more as described in Chapter 1. This chapter goes on to explore the two most 
popular social media websites in the business world: Facebook and Linkedln. 

8.1 Facebook for Business 

Facebook is the social media giant. As of June, 2012, Facebook had more than 955 million active users and 
accounted for 1 out of every 5 page views on the World Wide Web. Over 100 billion social networking 
connections exist within Facebook. These statistics from the Search Engine Journal (2012) mean that 
businesses cannot overlook this global communication channel. 

Developing a business presence on Facebook is a must, but the approach is far from simple. First, many 
people view Facebook as a primary method for communicating with family and close friends. This means 
that business connections, advertisements, and intrusive messages may not be welcome. In education, 
the same problem exists. Most students use Facebook but they do not want their teachers to be part of 
their personal network. 

This means businesses need to carefully plan their interactions in ways that respect typical Facebook 
use. This is not to say all people prefer to avoid any commercial contact on Facebook. In fact, on any 
given day, millions of Likes are given to business pages and business content is viewed, downloaded, 
and commented upon. 

The next sections will provide a look at the Facebook practices and then describe the ways many businesses 
are currently seeking to connect with stakeholders and potential customers (Mashable, 2012). 

8.1 .1 Profiles, Pages and Groups 

The fine line between business and personal use is reflected in Facebooks organizational structure in the 
form of profiles, pages and groups. These structures are intended to give different levels of interaction 
and have been used to varying degrees by businesses and individuals. 



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Profiles are the basic structure in Facebook and are intended for individual use. Some businesses have 
created profiles, but this practice violates the terms of service agreement with Facebook. Profiles are 
intended to represent a persons identity and contain the elements shown in Table 8.1 (Facebook Profile 
Page, 2012) and Figure 8.1. 



Element 


Description 


Summary 


Provides a description of the profile owner. Includes an overview of personal identity, 
geographic location, work/school information, and a summary of personal facts. Friends 
see recently tagged photos together with current activities. 


Experiences 


Provides space for more details of the profile owner's life. This might include 
information about how the owner spends her time, her hobbies, work projects, 
activities, and classes. 


Common Interests 


This area provides a venue to connect with friends with common interests. It might 
include sport teams, music, art, literature and people that provide inspiration. Top 
interests appear as a row of images that can be rearranged. 


Meaningful Friendships 


Best friends can be highlighted together with family members here. Other key people 
such as colleagues can be listed and arranged. 


Friend Connections 


A set of connections to friends' profiles are listed on the owner's page. Information such 
as mutual friends, common events, shared photos, and wall posts are listed here. 



Table 8.1 Facebook Profile for Individuals 




* Professor of Management Information Systems at Kans... 

* Studied Computer Information Systems and Quantitativ.. 
(* Lives in Manhattan r Kansas 

* Married to Annette MdHaney 

About 




ndDi a 



Friends BA 



Photos 10 Z 



waluon on 
Harry Pctter Move 

Map 18 




Likes 13 



Figure 8.1 Facebook Profile for the Author 



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Big Social Media: Facebookand Linkedln 



Facebook pages, on the other hand, are specifically designed for business use. Pages include the elements 
found in Table 8.2. 



Element 


Description 


Cover Photo 


This should be a unique photo that represents the business or an aspect of the business 
meant to capture the attention of customers and other stakeholders. 


Profile Photo 


This will be a small photo used to represent business identity. Typically a business logo 
is used as a profile photo and it will appear anywhere in Facebook that a link or content 
associated with the business is posted. 


About 


About provides a venue for a business description, contact information and links to 
helpful information such as business hours, location and so forth. 


Posts 


A location for fresh material related to a business. Posts, photos, videos, links, and other 
content is listed here. 



Table 8.2 Facebook Page Elements for Business Use 

Facebook recommends that businesses use their pages to develop a rapport with customers (Facebook, 
2012). They suggest regular posts to help foster relationships and to stimulate an active online community. 
A consistent voice and authentic, original information can encourage people to interact with the business. 
Facebook suggests the following items to encourage development of a community: 





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Web 2.0 and Social Media for Business Big Social Media: Facebook and Linkedln 

• New Content: Photos, videos, menus, sneak peeks, new product information and event an- 
nouncements. 

• Questions: Stimulate customers to provide feedback and opinions about products and services. 

• Events: Information about new product launches, anniversaries, promotions, in-store events 
and sales. 

• Stories: Posts that provide stories about products, successes, or other customers. 

Facebook provides the ability to manage a page from an administrative panel. This means the business 
owner can track activity, respond to comments, and track page statistics. Facebook locates its page 
statistics or metrics on its Page Insight Dashboard. A business can learn the identity of its page visitors, 
the day of week most visitors come to the page, the frequency of comments and which posts generate 
the most interest. 

Unlike profiles, pages do not accumulate friends. Instead, people become fans. In order to develop a 
business page, a user must first have a profile. The profile holder can then become an administrator of 
a page (Social Reflections, 2012). 

Pages provide additional benefits. For instance, people don't have to be logged into Facebook to view a 
business page. They don't even need to have a Facebook account. Each page is indexed by Google and 
other search engines and will be listed when searches are conducted. Profiles are limited to 500 friends 
but business pages can have an unlimited number of fans. For instance, pop star Michael Jackson's 
Facebook page has almost 50 million likes. 

From a business perspective, pages can be promoted with sidebar ads on Facebook, customized tabs with 
coupons and other items (e.g. maps, videos, et cetera), or discussions with fans. Figure 8.2 provides an 
example business page and Figure 8.3 shows Facebook's business information page. 



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Roger McHaney P 




Bookboon.com 

53,021 ISces ■ 3,443 talking shout this 



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Figure 8.2 Facebook Page for Bookboon.com 




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Learn how to grow your business with 
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Buid your Facebook presence, share content Reach the people who 6ke your Page and their Transform your websfce rito a social expenence 

with people who Ike your Page, and reach new friends with ads and sponsored stories on with pfcig-hs an ^ custom apps. 

customers. Facebook. 



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Figure 8.3 Facebook's Business Information Page 



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Another feature on Facebook is groups. Groups are intended to allow a subset of people to interact and 
share information. Groups are a private space that can be configured in various ways. Groups can be secret 
so only members can see it, know who is in it and what other members post. A secret group could be 
used for company employees or a set of business associates. Closed groups can be seen by everyone and 
everyone will be able to see the membership list. However, the content is only open to members. Open 
groups can be seen by anyone, membership is open and all content can be seen by the public. Groups are 
intended for use with profiles but can be used in some business settings. 

8.1 .2 Setting up a Facebook Page for Business 

Business pages are valuable for many reasons, the most obvious being that almost a billion people use 
Facebook and it is important to meet customers where they congregate (Jakob, 2011). People become 
fans of a business page simply by clicking a 'Like button. This creates a like between their profile and 
the business page if they are logged into Facebook. Each time a person presses Tike,' the business icon 
will be placed onto the user's profile page. This provides visibility for the business and helps information 
to move through networks of friends. 

Setting up a Facebook page for business is very similar to creating a business webpage. While customization 
is held to a minimum, the uniformity gives users the ability to easily navigate and feel comfortable on 
the site. 




REDEFINE YOUR FUTURE 

AXA GLOBAL 
GRADUATE PROGRAM 



redefining /standards 




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As mentioned earlier, in order to create a business page, a user will need to have a Facebook profile 
(Facebook Profile Page, 2012). The connection between a users profile and a business page is not public 
information. Only Facebook and the user know the connection exists. There will not be any blending of 
personal and business information unless the account owner posts it in both places. 

A user may have an unlimited number of Facebook pages and each page may have an unlimited number 
of fans. Pages are indexed on Google and other search engines and can be developed to target specific 
posts by location and language. Additional administrators can be added to Facebook pages to help with 
posting content and other activities. A Facebook page can be registered with a unique username at 
http://www.facebook.com/about/pages . 

Mari Smith (Smith, 2010) provides information regarding the development of a Facebook page for 
business use. First, she suggests studying other Facebook pages to get a sense of what users currently 
expect. Facebook's directory of pages is a great starting point: http://www.facebook.com/pages/Tbrowse . 
See Figure 8.4. 



t^J Disrovpr Facphnnk Pages 

See sametfnna vou lie ? Rol over trie Pbc; i 



* Create Page j 



n Musk: Moves Television People Sports Brands & Products Companies & Organizations Local Businesses & Places i "-Q0 Olympics 




You r\ 




Faoebook Famly Guv Biiiftn Lady Gaga YouTube Katy Pttry SautfiPark Rihanna 




Figure 8.4 Facebook's Directory of Pages 

Smith (Smith, 2010) then recommends a six-step approach to building a business Facebook page. The 
first step is to determine the page objective. By definition, a page is a single unit of information and 
not a comprehensive website. This means a primary purpose is essential. The objective might be brand 
awareness, developing a contact list, driving traffic to a corporate website, developing a sense of community, 
or gathering ideas for new products. 

The second step is to devise a design strategy. By understanding what needs to be accomplished, decisions 
regarding the type of media, posts, and other material can be determined. For instance, if the objective 
was to develop a sense of community, then infrastructure for posting questions and polls can be given 
a prominent location to help develop a sense of an ongoing dialog with fans. 

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Web 2.0 and Social Media for Business Big Social Media: Facebook and Linkedln 

Next, a content strategy can be determined. This means deciding whether photos, videos, posts, updates, 
events, and links should be used and in what mix. Connections to favorite blogs can be supplied together 
with custom developed material. 

Smith's fourth step is to promote the new Facebook page both inside of Facebook, across the web and 
in the real world. Facebook promotion can be done using a variety of methods (many covered in the 
previous chapter). Widgets can be added to Websites, Facebook ads can be placed, blog entries can be 
written and links back to the page incorporated. Twitter and print media can be used to drive traffic to 
the page. The list of possibilities is large. 

Following promotion, engagement and retention are necessary. Organizational resources will be required 
to enable the page to be monitored and moderated. Additional page administrators may be required 
depending on how much traffic is generated. Again, depending on the page objectives, it maybe important 
to have immediate responses to customer posts or questions. Other forms of engagement might include 
regular posts, polls, personalized messages to fans and the addition of a discussion board. 

Finally, the sixth step is to begin converting fans into long-term, loyal customers. Smith (2010) 
recommends waiting until the fan base is approximately 500-1,000 strong. This will enable efforts to 
achieve measureable results. Conversion can be tricky but it generally involves providing coupons, 
discounts, special events, or other incentives to give fans a call to action. 

8.1 .3 Using More of Facebook's Capabilities 

Facebook can be used very easily with relatively little understanding of its capabilities. It can also be 
used in sophisticated ways. Its numerous options and various settings can be reconfigured to customize 
its use. For instance, one little known feature on Facebook is its 'list' settings. 

Facebook allows users to set up lists for their profile page. The lists define what a particular group of 
people can and cannot see by permitting privacy settings to be adjusted. It is possible to create custom 
lists for common groups of friends. For example, a teacher might have family, personal, student, and 
colleague lists. By assigning friends to a specific list, privacy settings can be manipulated to only allow 
certain material to be accessible by individuals on a particular list. For a teacher, he or she might not 
want students to be able to access photos and posts related to his or her family. Likewise, those on his 
or her family list might not need to have access to a student study guide. 

The profile owner can visit his or her group of Facebook friends to create a new list or add someone to 
an existing list. To do this, mouse over the name of the friend to be added to a specific list. When the 
dialog box appears, click on the 'Friends' button and a box with all available lists will appear (see Figure 
8.5). The profile owner may have to click on an item that says 'show all lists'. It is also possible to create a 
new list from this dialog box. Click on the list or lists for this particular friend. Once a friend is added to 
a list, then content added to a Facebook profile can be screened from their view more easily (if desired). 

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sing - Create a 



Restricted 



Figure 8.5 Creating Friend Lists in Facebook 

In order to post information restricted to a specific list of people, first create a post, load a video or add a 
photo as normal. Then, use the dropdown box associated with the content to select the list of friends as an 
audience. Figure 8.6 shows how a post about a power outage will be made visible only to family members. 



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E 1 Status Hi Photo £ Place £01 life Erait 



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At Navigant, there is no limit to the impact you 
can have. As you envision your future and all 
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will bring, we offer this simple guiding principle: 
It's not what we do. It's how we do it. 

Impact matters. 



NAVIGANT 



iavigant.com 



DISPUTES & INVESTIGATIONS • ECC 



3 Navigant Consulting, Inc. All rights reserved. Navigant Consulting 
attest, or public accounting services. 



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After posting the content, the settings can be modified to include more viewers. Figures 8.7 and 8.8 show 
how this can be done by using a dropdown menu and then by adding lists or giving specific friends the 
ability to see the post. This is a very powerful capability in Facebook that makes it possible to use one 
account for multiple purposes (Stelzner, 2010). 




Roger McHan 

2 seconds ago 



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Custom Privacy 










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Note: Anyone tagged can else see this post 




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Figure 8.8 Example of Making Content Visible to a List and Specific Friend 



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8.1 .4 Setting a Business Policy for Facebook 

Using Facebook for business, even a small business, requires functional organization and a consistent 
approach. For this reason, it becomes important to assign the responsibility for Facebook or any social 
media updates to the correct entity within a company. Initially, many businesses assigned social media 
and website responsibility to an IT department or a technology person. While it is necessary to have 
technology support for social media, effective use requires content development and expertise from 
functional business areas that communicate with targeted stakeholders. This often means that social 
media used to communicate with those outside an organization is best served by a media specialist or 
someone from a marketing or customer service background. Internal use of social media may come 
from human resources or various departmental managers. While IT people are important members 
of a social media team, they are seldom the correct people to develop and post content and respond 
to comments. 

A good approach is to set up a social media team and use that entity to manage content, updates, 
approaches, and provide a general philosophy. A team might comprise functional managers, media 
specialists, marketing specialists, copy writers, and technology people. Ultimately, a particular person 
should be in charge of the effort. In small companies, this will not be a full time effort but rather will be 
a component of someone's job. 

Social media posts or content should be subject to an editorial process and perhaps comply with a set of 
editorial guidelines. It might be important to have guidelines defining comments as spam if they include 
links to non-related content or if the posted comment is self-promoting. A policy might be to ensure 
every comment receives a thoughtful reply. Another policy might be to ensure at least one new post 
appears each day and that post contains original content from within the organization. Perhaps a second 
post with a link to a related content from outside the company should be added each day. Another policy 
might be to include a poll once a week. It might become a corporate practice to ask thought provoking 
questions to get customer input or feedback. Perhaps new product development ideas can use Facebook 
communication to determine customer needs. The potential depends on organizational goals and the 
resources available. The possibilities are endless. 

It is important to remember that social media implementation requires resources, a thoughtful and 
consistent approach, and a team that is dedicated to long-term results. Building an audience of fans will 
not occur overnight. 



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8.2 Linkedln for Business 

Without a doubt, Linkedln has become the social media venue of choice for businesses and individuals 
seeking to network with a career focus. It was founded in December 2002 and publically launched in May 
2003. By mid-2012, Linkedln had more than 175 million registered users from over 200 countries. While 
Facebook focuses on connections between friends, relatives, and other casual acquaintances, Linkedln 
has specifically courted the business world and attempted to create an online venue where job histories, 
resumes, recommendations, and career- related networking can take place. Many businesses recruit new 
employees using Linkedln and for many individuals, Linkedln has become the primary location where all 
business contacts, skill inventories, training records, and experience histories are maintained. Linkedln 
also is useful in maintaining communication and contact with business associates. For instance, if a 
member changes jobs, locations, or receives a promotion, she easily can send the updated information 
to her business associates. 

8.2.1 Profiles on Linkedln 

Much like Facebook, Linkedln relies on profiles for individual users. The primary difference relates to 
the type of material that is important to Linkedln users. Table 8.3 provides a general description of the 
primary profile components for Linkedln. Figure 8.9 provide an example of profile information. 



Component 


Description 


Picture 


This is a unique photo of the profile owner. Most users prefer pictures showing that 
individual wearing business attire. 


Positions 


This is a list of current and past job positions including dates, titles, job duties, 
responsibilities, and other pertinent information. 


Achievements 


A profile holder can provide a summary of his or her primary achievements. 


Education History 


This is a list of all education and training attended. Generally it focuses on university 
experience and degrees but can include other training venues as well. 


Links 


A list of links can be added. Most users include links to their blogs, company website, or 
other important locations relevant to work life. 



Table 8.3 Linkedln Profile Components 



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M 


Roger McHaney Edit 






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Professor at Kansas State University 






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Programmer at Olofsson Manufacturing 




Education 


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Lake Superior State University 




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21* connections 




Websites 


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Figure 8.9 Linkedln Profile Example 




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.mil you'll hc-lp Im-inns Ifi-il tin- workl. 

Start right now: www.monsanto.com/studeiits 



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In general, Linkedln includes a basic resume, a personal summary, contact details, and links to pertinent 
websites. All are focused on professional networking. Linkedln offers different levels of access. Free access 
subjects users to sponsors and advertising, but Linkedln has been careful to keep the ads less intrusive. 
By upgrading to a paid account, additional capabilities are added. Among these are faster searches of 
Linkedlns membership database, direct messaging without needing introductions, and more profile 
organization tools and options. 

Once a profile has been created, a Linkedln user can publish it and begin creating connections. 
Connections are current and former colleagues, teachers and classmates, business associates, and other 
professional contacts. In general, the idea is to create direct connections by adding people relevant to 
the users professional circle. These connections can provide introductions to additional professionals 
which help build a network in particular specialty areas. 

Linkedlns connections can provide ways to find freelance and consulting work. It is possible to include 
information to aid others seeking consultants. It also is possible to use connections to build business 
customer bases, seek new sales leads, or to find new career opportunities. Among the featured uses of 
Linkedln are: 

• Obtain, store and distribute online recommendations that can be used to attest to professional 
abilities or character. 

• Obtain introductions to key individuals in relevant industries. 

• Obtain introductions to potential employers. 

• Search job listings placed on Linkedln. 

• Create an online resume that continues to grow with experiences and career changes. 

Linkedln also provides interest groups that allow members to engage in threaded discussions. Individuals 
participating in groups may be invited to join professional networks by others in the conversations. 
Discussions can be used to post job listings. Linkedln also permits resumes to be searched by professionals 
seeking to recruit top talent into their firms. 

8.2.2 Linkedln for Job Searches 

Linkedln is well known for its capability as a job search tool. In many ways it has become the new standard 
for posting resumes, recommendation letters, and providing career histories. Potential employers can 
see prospective hires' networks of contacts which can add to the applicants' credibility and relevance. 

In addition to traditional job postings, Linkedln often is used to find jobs from employers seeking 
telecommuters. Many employers use Linkedln exclusively for job postings. This, of course, emphasizes 
the importance of having a Linkedln account and a complete profile. 



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Using Linkedln to find a job means ensuring a profile is set up to emphasize the applicants strengths. 
While most jobs still require a separate resume and cover letter, Linkedln profiles may be used for 
screening to provide a bigger picture. This means the entire "resume" portion of the profile should be 
complete, error- free, updated, and relevant to the type of work being sought. 

Linkedln can be used to discover and join groups related to the work field desired. This provides more 
opportunities and demonstrates to potential employers the relevance of the job. Once a group member, 
it becomes possible for a job seeker to invite potential employers to join their network or to participate 
in direct discussions. 

Finding jobs on Linkedln starts with the 'Jobs' tab (See Figure 8.10). 



Linked Qj Account Type: Basic 
Home Profile Contacts Groups 

Jobs Home Saved Jobs Saved Search 



Search for Jobs 



Job Tille, Keywords, or Company Hams 



Jobs 



Inbox ; Companies News More 



Find Jobs 

Job Seeker P rem sum 

Post a Job 
Manage Your Jobs 
Find Talent 



Hiring Solutions 



Jobs you may be interested in 



Email Alerts | See More » 






Boston University Office of Distance Education - Greater Boston Area 



Adjunct Faculty (New Community; College] 

City University of New York - New York City, Midtown Manhattan 



Figure 8.10 Job Tab in Linkedln 

Linkedln will generate a list of relevant jobs based on a user's resume and job history by trying to match 
up key words in job listings. By default, this provides views of jobs that may match potential search 
criteria. The system also provides advanced search features to allow a user to broaden their search or 
narrow in on a specific job category. 

As mentioned earlier, Linkedln offers discussion groups. These groups can provide additional methods 
for finding (or listing) jobs. Group members may post direct emails or web links to pages specific to 
particular jobs. Some groups require contacting a moderator to join but others are open to all. 

Often, the best way to find job openings on Linkedln is by using its power as a social network. Word 
of mouth and being linked to colleagues and friends of friends can often lead to opportunities that will 
result in job offers or at least information about potential openings. Credibility can be gained by having 
recommendations regularly added by significant colleagues as a career history is built over time. 

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8.2.3 Linkedln Maps 

Linkedln Labs provides a tool that aids in visualizing social networking connections developed through 
use of Linkedln. The InMap is an interactive visual representation of a user's professional universe, based 
on the relationships between social networking connections (LinkedlnLabs, 2012). InMap retrieves 
information from a users Linkedln account to determine how people are connected to both the user 
and each other. This information creates a color-coded, personalized map. By analyzing and grouping, 
interconnected groups of related colleagues emerge. Each group is separated into a cluster sharing a 
common color and area on the overall map. InMap can be accessed on the website inmaps.linkedinlabs. 
com as shown on Figure 8.11. 




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Web 2.0 and Social Media for Business 



Big Social Media: Facebookand Linkedln 



LinkediUJ. *^<npS 

Your professional world. Visualized. 

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between you and your connections. 



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To get the most out of this website, we recommend using Google Chrome or Mozilla Firefox, 

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Figure 8.1 1 InMap Website for Linkedln 



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Users with Linkedln accounts can provide permission for the software to retrieve their connections and 
construct a personalized map. Figure 8.12 shows the permission process. 



Linked 03: 



Don't have an account? Join Now 



Grant In Maps access to your Linkedln Account 

Only allow access if you trust this application with your Linkedln network information 






-/ 



\- 




Email: 


mchaney@ksu edu 


Password: 


•••••••• 



Forgot password? 



Access Duration: Until Revoked change 



Ok. I'll Allow It 



Cancel 



You can always revofte InMaps's access through your settings page. By granting 
access you agree to the Linkedln User Agreement and Privacy Policy 

Figure 8.12 InMap Permission to Retrieve Linkedln Account Information 



The initial map will be created by the software and a set of color codes will be presented. Each color 
represents a cluster of similar colleagues. The software prompts the user to fill out the map legend to 
provide meaningful labels which will appear if the map is shared. See Figure 8.13. 

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Label your 
Professional Networks 

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* > . : 



Figure 8.13 Adding Legend to InMap 

The resulting map can be shared with friends and colleagues by using the 'Share button. Linkedln, 
Twitter and Facebook buttons or the page URL can be used to distribute the map. Although the cluster 
labels can be shared, individual names are not shown to preserve privacy of the user's connections or 
their interconnections. Figure 8.14 provides a view of an InMap. 



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Figure 8.14 Sample InMap without Legend Labels 



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243 



Web 2.0 and Social Media for Business Big Social Media: Facebook and Linkedln 

8.2.4 Linkedln Company Pages 

Company pages are a relatively new feature for Linkedln. The idea is to allow businesses to post additional 
details that will be of interest to current or potential employees, stakeholders, and the general public (see 
Figure 8.15). A company page can provide news feed type features where changes, updates, and news can 
be posted (Jackson, 2011). Many organizations have begun to use company pages to create special offers 
for visitors and those that recommend or endorse the page. Similar to company pages found on Facebook, 
these pages are open to the general public and can be found with Google and other search engines. It is 
important for a company to include their contact details, email addresses, and other details on these pages. 



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PhD Education Leadership - Online PhD prepares you to lead in educational settings. Learn more now. 
Companies > Kansas State University 

Overview Careers Products & Services Insights 
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Kansas State University, often referred to as K-State. is an institution of higher 

learning located in Manhattan. Kansas, in the United States A branch / Following ▼ 

campus including the College of Technology and Aviation is located in Salina. c jcq Fnllruupr^ 

Kansas. A third campus. K-State Olathe, officially opened on April 

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Michael Diane, and FJ61 others connect you 
Kansas State University has a new Graduate research assistant to |< arisas state University 

Marc Pierre Bianchi is now Graduate research assistant, was Product development 
intern at Kellogg Company 

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Figure 8.15 Kansas State University Company Page in Linkedln 

8.3 Conclusions 

Big social media has become a significant component of many organizations public faces. Customers, 
employees, and stakeholders expect to find high quality, useful information on Facebook, Linkedln, 
and similar sites. These venues have increased in importance and have even replaced traditional web 
pages for many small businesses. The ease of construction and familiar interface and ability to contact 
important customers contribute to this movement. 

More than just a website, social media facilitates social networking and the creation of communication 
links between organizations and individuals important to its existence. Emerging communities of 
individuals sharing common interests and experiences related to the organization are becoming 
commonplace and, although somewhat outside a company's control, can provide valuable insight and 
connections. 



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244 



Web 2.0 and Social Media for Business Big Social Media: Facebook and Linkedln 

8.4 Bibliography 

Facebook (2012). "Business", http://www.facebook.com/business 

Facebook Profile Page (2012). http://www.facebook.com/about/profile/ 

Goddard, M. (2012). Social Networking vs Social Media. R2Integrated PDF. 
http://www.r2integrated.com/pdf/Social Networking vs Social Media.pdf 

Jackson, S. (2011). "16 Smarter Ways to Use Linkedln to Build Your Business." CopyBlogger (June 3). 
http://www.copyblogger.com/linkedin/ 

Jakob (2011). "Overview of Facebook for Business Part 1: Pages vs. Profiles." Facebook Marketing for 
Business (August 11). 
http://www.pagemodo.com/blog/overview-facebook-business-part-l-pages-vs-profiles/ 

LinkedlnLabs (2012). http://inmaps.linkedinlabs.com/ 

Mashable (2012). Facebook Guide Book, http://mashable.com/guidebook/facebook/ 

Search Engine Journal (2012). Stats on Facebook (February 17). 
http://www.searchenginejournal.com/stats-on-facebook-2012-infographic/40301/ 

Social Reflections (2012). Difference between a Page and Profile on Facebook. 
http://www.socialreflections.com/difference-between-a-page-and-profile-on-facebook/ 

Smith, M. (2010). "Facebook 101 for Business: Your Complete Guide." Social Media Examiner (August 
10). http://www.socialmediaexaminer.com/facebook-101-business-guide/ 

Stelzner, M. (2009). Social Media vs. Social Networking: What's the difference? Examiner (May 22). 
http://www.examiner.com/article/social-media-vs-social-networking-what-s-the-difference 

Stelzner, M. (2010). "3 Reasons Facebook Trumps Twitter for Business," Social Media Examiner (July 6). 
http://www.socialmediaexaminer.com/3-reasons-facebook-trumps-twitter-for-business/ 



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245 



Web 2.0 and Social Media for Business Acknowledgements 



Acknowledgements 



I would like to thank my wife, Annette McHaney. She proofread the manuscript and provided a valuable 
critique, inspiration, and suggested helpful changes. Thanks also go to Kansas State University and the 
College of Business Administration for supporting my work on this book. 



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